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Energy From Solid and Liquid Wastes - VIII

Energy From Solid and Liquid Wastes - VIII

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Published by Mukul Narayan
It describes about the production of all kinds of energy from solid and liquid wastes.
It describes about the production of all kinds of energy from solid and liquid wastes.

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Published by: Mukul Narayan on Jul 14, 2009
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


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Lecture No: 18Urban Waste to Energy from Landfill Biogas Projects and by Pyrolysis Plants18.1. Introduction
The urban waste is usually dumped in so called municipal landfills or municipalrefuse dumps. These landfills are usually away from the city and occupy substantial landareas. Urban waste is transported by road trucks and is dumped into the landfills. Landfillwaste gets fermented by natural bacterial decay (by anaerobic fermentation) and releasesmethane rich fuel gas. This gas is called landfill gas or refuse-tip-gas. Obtaining themethane rich fuel gas from landfills is the most economical and environmentallyattractive method of obtaining energy from urban waste. Landfill Gas is being used as arenewable energy source in several countries in the world (
Table 18.1
Table 18.1 Landfill Gas Project Sites (1998)
Purification(pipeline)vehicle fuelOther knownapplicationTotalschemesTrials/scheme plannedUnited statesWest GermanyUK SwedenItalyHollandDenmark CanadaFrance NorwaySwitzerlandAustraliaBrazilIndiaChile714
---------1---11Total 331557133114632* one scheme generates electricity and sells gas.+ includes one research project.** two schemes generates electricity and also gas for heating.++ Four schemes are recorded as “ Boiler, CHP”.
CHP = combined heat and power.Pyrolysis was tried for converting biomass from urban waste to energy. However,the pyrolysis is used mainly for making wood-charcoal.
18.2. Applications of Landfill Gas
Landfill gas contains predominantly methane (54% by volume). The landfill gasis used in following applications directly:--- As a fuel for burning in boilers (without purification)--- As a fuel for Kilns, Furnaces.The purified methane obtained from landfill gas is used in following applications---- As a vehicle fuel.---As a fuel for diesel engines.--- As a fuel for Diesel Engine, to produce electrical energy---After upgrading, supplied as fuel gas to domestic consumers.
Fig 18.1 Application of Landfill gas (LFG).12.3. Composition of Landfill Gas
The land-fill gas is generated by the fermentation of organic matter dumped in thelandfill. The process sis called anaerobic fermentation i.e. decomposition caused by(anaerobe, the microorganisms) without need of oxygen. This process is suitable for municipal manure. The process takes place at low temperatures up to 60
C and requiresmoisture. The gases produced vary in composition with time taken by the process(
). After a period of 2 months from starting, the landfill gas has mainly methane(52%) and carbon dioxide (46%). During initial periods other gases like oxygen,hydrogen, nitrogen etc. are released in different proportions.

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