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Introduction Nonlinear Circuit Analysis

# Introduction Nonlinear Circuit Analysis

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Published by: Kevin Jacobson on Oct 04, 2013

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10/31/2013

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Nonlinear Circuit Analysis – An Introduction
1.Why nonlinear circuits?Electricaldevices(amplifiers,computers)arebuiltfromnonlinearcomponents.Inordertounderstandthedesignofthesedevices,afundamentalunderstandingofnonlinearcircuitsisnecessary.Moreover,nonlinearcircuitsiswherethe“realengineering”comesin.Thatis,therearenohardandfastrulestoanalyzemostnonlinearcircuitsyouhavetouseyourbrain!But,tomakeyourlifeeasywewillstartwithsomesystematicmethods to analyze op-amp nonlinear circuits.Thischapterisorganizedasfollows:firstwewilltalkaboutwhatmakesacircuitnonlinear.Next,wewillseeaveryusefulnonlinearcircuitthenegativeresistanceconverter.Thenwewillseeanapplicationofthenegativeresistanceconverter:theoscillator.2.What is a nonlinear circuit?Itiseasytounderstandthedifferencebetweenalinearandanonlinearcircuitbylookingat the difference between a linear and a nonlinear equation:
y

x
¡
2
(1)
y
¢
x
2
(2)The x-y graph of each function is shown below:
Figure 1.
A linear versus nonlinear function
Youcanseethatifthex-ygraphoffunctionisastraightline,thenobviouslythefunctionis linear. But, what about functions like the absolute value:

Figure 2.
The absolute value function is piece-wise linear
Thefunctionaboveisstillclassifiedasnonlinearbecausewecannotwritethefunctioninthe form y = ax+b.Inthecircuitworld,wehavei-vgraphs.Therefore,
weclassifyacircuitaslinearornon-linearbyexaminingitsi-vgraph.
Ifthei-vgraphofthecircuitisastraightline,thenthecircuitisclassifiedaslinear.Notethatthedefinitioncanbeextendedeventocircuitelements.Forinstance,aresistor'si-vgraphisastraightline,henceitisalineardevice.3.The Negative Resistance ConverterConsider the op-amp circuit shown below:
Figure 3.
The Negative Resistance Converter
Thegoalistoderivethei-vgraphattheterminalsindicated.First,noticethisop-amp

circuithasbothpositiveandnegativefeedback.Inanop-ampyouknowthatnocurrentflowsintotheinvertingterminal,sowecaneasilyfindtherelationshipbetweeni,V
o
andV using Ohm's law:
i
£
v
¤
o
R
f
(3)YoushouldunderstandfromthepassivesignconventionwhythenumeratorisvV
o
,NOTV
o
v.Equation(3)abovedoeshaveani-vrelationship.However,weneedtoeliminateV
o.
Hereiswherethepositivefeedbackhelpsus.Again,thecurrentflowingintothenon-invertingterminaloftheop-ampiszero.Thetrickistospotthevoltagedivideratthenon-invertingterminal.Sincenocurrentisflowingintothenon-invertingterminal, R
a
and R
b
are in series as shown below:
Figure 4.
The voltage divider between the output terminal and the non-inverting terminal
V
p
(thevoltageatthenon-invertingterminal)canbeeasilyfoundusingthevoltagedivider:
p
¥
R
b
R
a
¦
R
b
§
o
(4)
o
¥
R
a
¦
R
b
R
b
§
p
(5)But, V
p
= V
n
(we are assuimg the op-amp is in the linear region). Notice however fromfigure 3 that v = V
n
. Substituting in (5):
o
¨
R
a
R
b
R
b
v
(6)Substituting(6)in(3),wegetani-vrelationshipfortheop-ampoperatinginthelinearregion:

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Kevin Jacobson added this note|about 1 month ago
nice graph!
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