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Hydrocarbon Classification and EOR 101, 2012

Hydrocarbon Classification and EOR 101, 2012

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Published by SolarWind49
Primer on Hydrocarbon Accumulation Classification and EOR: natural gas, LNG, condensates, plant products, volatile oils, crude oils, API Gravity, viscosity. Reservoir Engineering: Enhanced oil recovery (EOR): miscible and immiscible displacement, thermal recovery, chemical flooding, conformance. US National Energy Policy: clean coal combustion, natural gas conservation.
US Environmental Policy: greenhouse gases, carbon dioxide sequestration, pollution, emissions. Horizontal drilling.
Primer on Hydrocarbon Accumulation Classification and EOR: natural gas, LNG, condensates, plant products, volatile oils, crude oils, API Gravity, viscosity. Reservoir Engineering: Enhanced oil recovery (EOR): miscible and immiscible displacement, thermal recovery, chemical flooding, conformance. US National Energy Policy: clean coal combustion, natural gas conservation.
US Environmental Policy: greenhouse gases, carbon dioxide sequestration, pollution, emissions. Horizontal drilling.

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Published by: SolarWind49 on Jul 15, 2009
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

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04/14/2013

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Jim Myers, MPE
Hydrocarbon Classification and EOR 101,
July 14, 2009
Page 1 of 75
Hydrocarbon Classification and EOR 101
Table of Contents
T
ABLE OF
C
ONTENTS
...........................................................................................1A
BSTRACT
..........................................................................................................3T
ABLE OF
A
PPENDICES
........................................................................................3I
NTRODUCTION
....................................................................................................4H
UBBERT
S
“P
EAK
AND
B
ELL
C
URVE
................................................................4G
EOPOLITICS OF
I
NTERNATIONAL
HO & B
ITUMEN
D
EPOSITS
...............................5E
NVIRONMENTAL
B
ITUMEN
& HO I
SSUES
...........................................................7O
ILFIELD
J
ARGON AND
P
ROFESSIONS
...................................................................8G
EOSCIENCES
, A
CCOUNTING
, L
AND
, L
EGAL
........................................................8D
RILLING AND
P
ETROPHYSICAL
E
NGINEERS
........................................................9P
RODUCTION AND
R
ESERVOIR
E
NGINEERS
...........................................................9C
RUDE
O
IL
C
LASSIFICATION
..............................................................................11I
NTERMEDIATE
H
YDROCARBONS
........................................................................11S
INGLE
-P
HASE
F
LOW IN
P
OROUS
M
EDIA
.............................................................13D
RY
G
AS
R
ESERVOIRS
.......................................................................................13LNG
AND
E
NERGY
P
OLICY
................................................................................14W
ET
G
AS
R
ESERVOIRS
.......................................................................................162-P
HASE
R
ELATIVE
P
ERMEABILITY AND
F
RACTIONAL
F
LOW
...............................16R
ELATIVE
P
ERMEABILITY AND
M
OBILITY
R
ATIO
................................................17R
ETROGRADE
G
AS
R
ESERVOIRS
.........................................................................18V
OLATILE
O
ILS
..................................................................................................18C
RUDE
“B
LACK
” O
ILS
........................................................................................20C
ONVENTIONAL
(L
IGHT
& I
NTERMEDIATE
) C
RUDE
O
IL
......................................20API G
RAVITY AND
H
EAVY
C
RUDE
O
ILS
(HO)....................................................21HO & B
ITUMEN
, A
CCORDING TO
USGS:............................................................22S
HALES
, A
CCUMULATIONS
,
AND
“O
IL
S
HALES
”..................................................23R
ESERVOIR
C
ONDITIONS AND
F
LUID
D
ENSITIES
..................................................24R
ESERVOIR
C
ONDITIONS AND
O
IL
V
ISCOSITIES
...................................................24R
ESERVOIR
C
ONDITIONS
, P
OROSITIES
& W
ETTABILITIES
....................................25P
RIMARY
O
IL
R
ECOVERY
D
RIVE
M
ECHANISMS
...................................................25O
RIGINAL
O
IL IN
P
LACE AND
R
ECOVERY
E
FFICIENCY
.........................................26C
ONSEQUENCES OF
O
IL
R
ESERVOIR
D
EPLETION
..................................................28W
ATERFLOOD AND
EOR (IOR) U
NITS
...............................................................28S
CREENING
P
RODUCING
O
IL FIELDS FOR
WF & EOR..........................................29W
ATER
D
RIVE
, D
ISPOSAL AND
S
UPPLY
...............................................................29W
ATERFLOODING
& H
OT
W
ATER
I
NJECTION
......................................................30W
HY
W
ATERFLOODS
U
NDER
-
PERFORM
..............................................................31
 
Jim Myers, MPE
Hydrocarbon Classification and EOR 101,
July 14, 2009
Page 2 of 75
C
HEMICAL
F
LOODING
(CF) I
NTRODUCTION
........................................................32A
LKALINE
F
LOODING AND
ASP..........................................................................32S
URFACTANTS
, M
ICELLES
, T
YPE
I M
ICRO
-
EMULSIONS
.......................................32M
ICRO
-
EMULSION
T
YPES
II & III.......................................................................33S
URFACTANTS IN
E&P.......................................................................................34P
OLYMERS
, G
ELS
,
AND
G
ELATION
......................................................................34O
ILFIELD
P
OLYMERS AND
G
ELS
..........................................................................35M
ICROBIAL
EOR................................................................................................36CF EOR S
UMMARY
...........................................................................................37M
ISCIBLE
EOR (CO
2
) P
ROCESSES
:.....................................................................37CO
2
 
F
LOOD
L
OGISTICS
& O
PERATIONS
...............................................................38S
CREENING
O
IL
-CO
2
 
M
ISCIBILITY
......................................................................39EOR
FOR
HO F
IELDS
: TRHO............................................................................40C
YCLIC
S
TEAM
I
NJECTION
(CSI).........................................................................41S
TEAMFLOODING
(SF)........................................................................................41I
N
-S
ITU
C
OMBUSTION
(I-SC,
OR FIRE FLOOD
).....................................................42T
OE TO
H
EEL
A
IR
I
NJECTION
(THAI™)..............................................................42D
ILUTION OF
HO
FOR
P
IPELINES
.........................................................................43S
URFACTANTS
, HO, & B
ITUMEN
........................................................................44“D
EAD
” O
IL AND
R
ECOVERY
E
FFICIENCY
...........................................................44S
TRIPPER
W
ELLS IN THE
US...............................................................................45A
N
E
MERGING
EOR C
HEMICAL
F
LOODING
P
ROCESS
..........................................45EOR
AND
CO2 S
EQUESTRATION
........................................................................46F
LUE
G
AS
& G
REENHOUSE
G
ASES
......................................................................47US
 
F
LUE
G
AS
L
OCATIONS
..................................................................................47US L
OCATIONS FOR
G
EOLOGICAL
CO
2
 
S
EQUESTRATION
.....................................49F
LUE
G
AS
C
OMPOSITION
....................................................................................50F
LUE
G
AS
P
ROCESSING
......................................................................................50P
ROCESSING
F
LUE
G
AS
NO
X
...............................................................................51P
ROCESSING
F
LUE
G
AS
SO
2
...............................................................................51P
ROCESSING
F
LUE
G
AS
M
ERCURY
, H
G
...............................................................52G
REENHOUSE
G
AS
S
EQUESTRATION
...................................................................52C
O
-
OPTIMIZATION
F
AILURE
................................................................................53H
ORIZONTAL
D
RILLING IN
P
ROVEN
O
ILFIELDS
....................................................54M
ICRO
H
OLE
D
RILLING
......................................................................................56S
UMMARY
: L
IGHT
O
IL
L
EGACY
, H
EAVY
O
IL
D
ESTINY
.......................................57US E
NERGY
P
OLICY
I
SSUES
................................................................................59R
EFERENCES
......................................................................................................60
 
Jim Myers, MPE
Hydrocarbon Classification and EOR 101,
July 14, 2009
Page 3 of 75
Abstract
The Global Industry of Exploration & Production (E&P), refining, transportation,distribution, and sales of hydrocarbons (oil & gas) give and take tremendous influencefrom and upon International geopolitical economics and logistics. Based uponenvironmental, ecological, personal and national economics, 2009 may mark thebeginning of the end of the “Hydrocarbon Age” of Man. May this Age conclude with aslittle torment as the Stone Age, ages of Bronze, Iron, Coal, etc...Should this End be near, exit strategies for individuals, companies, provinces, and nationswill be required. New information and technologies are available to assist with thiseventual shift from reliance upon hydrocarbons to fuel our vehicles, heat and cool ourbuildings, and generally support commerce and culture on all scales.Inventory and study of these data and technologies is vital to promote progress, controlhuman convenience, prevent human tragedy, preserve flora and fauna, foster sustainableecology and environment, and preserve political stability. Traditional and alternativeenergy resources must be balanced in delicate compromise and interplay.This document focuses upon some aspects of the science, engineering and technologiesof E&P, at a college freshman level. The overall role of E&P in upcoming events willnot be to solve the many problems now in view. Opportunities to forestall identifiedproblems, mitigate their intensity, and reduce their consequences seem apparent,however. Transition to the New Energy Economy will benefit from efforts to sustain andimplement good ideas, maximum identification of practical oil & gas resources, and questfor sustainable modifications to current systems. Enhanced oil recovery (EOR),especially as applied to heavy oil (HO) and bitumens, is perhaps the most powerful toolE&P can wield in the near future.Improved national energy policies and environmental policies for many nations may beattainable through careful study and collaboration between nations. Our citizens andcompanies would certainly benefit from application of foresight, practicality, and timingto enact genuine US National Energy Policy and US National Environmental Policy.
Table of Appendices
A
PPENDIX
1. D
ARCY
S
L
AW
..................................................................................................62A
PPENDIX
2. P
ITCH
(A
SPHALT
) L
AKES
..................................................................................63A
PPENDIX
3. F
AIRWAY
J
AMES
L
IME
F
IELD
, E
AST
T
EXAS
.......................................................63A
PPENDIX
4. E
XXON
M
OBIL ADDS
1.5B
BARRELS TO PROVED RESERVES
................................64A
PPENDIX
5. O
IL
F
ROM
C
ANADA
S
T
AR
S
ANDS
C
AN
B
E
M
ADE
‘C
LEAN
,’ O
BAMA
S
AYS
.........64A
PPENDIX
6. ANWR
RESIDENTS FAVOR DEVELOPMENT
.........................................................66A
PPENDIX
7. R
EVIEWS OF
H
UBBERT
'
S
P
EAK
: T
HE
I
MPENDING
W
ORLD
O
IL
S
HORTAGE
..........66A
PPENDIX
8. R
EVIEWS OF
M
ATTHEW
R. S
IMMONS
WILIGHT IN THE 
 D
 ESERT 
:
........................71A
PPENDIX
9. R
ADIAL
J
ET
E
NHANCEMENT
..............................................................................74A
PPENDIX
10:........................................................................................................................75“S
URFACTANT
-B
ASED
P
HOTORHEOLOGICAL
F
LUIDS
: E
FFECT OF THE
S
URFACTANT
S
TRUCTURE
.............................................................................................................................................75

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