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WFI by Microwave Continuous Process

WFI by Microwave Continuous Process

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Published by William Greco
The most widely used raw material in the Pharmaceutical Industry is water.
Water used for the manufacture of cell culture medium and cleaning of equipment is termed USP (United States Pharmacopedia) WFI (water for injection).
The grade of water most difficult and most expensive to produce is WFI.
WFI is commonly produced by distillation or reverse osmosis. Many WFI systems
utilize carbon filtration and deionization for pre-treatment before distillation.
The water must then be recycled in a hot, closed loop system and stored in tanks
at a high temperature to prevent microbial growth.
The most widely used raw material in the Pharmaceutical Industry is water.
Water used for the manufacture of cell culture medium and cleaning of equipment is termed USP (United States Pharmacopedia) WFI (water for injection).
The grade of water most difficult and most expensive to produce is WFI.
WFI is commonly produced by distillation or reverse osmosis. Many WFI systems
utilize carbon filtration and deionization for pre-treatment before distillation.
The water must then be recycled in a hot, closed loop system and stored in tanks
at a high temperature to prevent microbial growth.

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Categories:Types, Research, Science
Published by: William Greco on Jul 15, 2009
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

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09/14/2010

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WFI by Microwave Continuous Process
By William Greco page 1 of 5July 2009Warrington, Pa.w2gre@verizon.net
Executive Summary
The most widely used raw material in the Pharmaceutical Industry is water.Water used for the manufacture of cell culture medium and cleaning of equipment istermed USP (United States Pharmacopedia) WFI (water for injection).The grade of water most difficult and most expensive to produce is WFI.WFI is commonly produced by distillation or reverse osmosis. Many WFI systemsutilize carbon filtration and deionization for pre-treatment before distillation.The water must then be recycled in a hot, closed loop system and stored in tanksat a high temperature to prevent microbial growth.
Microwave WFI systems are being developed to provide energy efficient means of providing medical grade water that can be used in a continuous process.
Advantages of Microwave WFI Systems
The substantial aspect of a microwave WFI system is the ability to thermallydeactivate endotoxins in a continuous process, which eliminates expensive systemelements such as
ultra
-filtration membranes, stainless steel piping loops and storagetanks, at the same time saving energy. On demand WFI by continuous process has theadvantage of being more pure than WFI stored over a period of time in tanks.These characteristics have the following applications :
LaboratoriesIn
standalone systems
In a range of large systems that meet various requirementsT
o select and protect by sterilization vulnerable connections to WFI water productionTo save energy in the production of WFILightweight and portable Microwave Powered Continuous Flow WFI equipment can berapidly deployed during emergencies (when the main system is off-line).
 
WFI by Microwave Continuous Process
By William Greco page 2 of 5July 2009Warrington, Pa.w2gre@verizon.net
Endotoxins
Endotoxins are prevalent in potable water and are the structural component in bacteriawhich are released when bacteria cellular membranes break or are lysed. The termgram-negative bacteria is associated with endotoxin cells that have a thinner structurewith distinct layers. There is an outer layer which is more like a cytoplasmic membranein composition with the typical trilaminar structure. The Gram-negative cell wall isassociated with endotoxic activity, with which are associated the pyrogenic effects of Gram-negative infections. Endotoxins originating from the lipopolysaccharide cell wallsof gram-negative bacteria, with significant biological toxicity,
must be removed.
WFI Production By A Microwave Device
The production of WFI is being achieved by the use of applying a microwave antennain conjunction with pressurization to directly couple the microwave source with turbulentwater. Microwave heating of water is known as volumetric heating due to directcoupling of microwaves with the rotation and vibration transitions of water. High waterpressure is required to prevent the water from boiling. At present very small experimentalmicrowave devices have been able to produce a WFI flow rate of 13 milliliters perminute utilizing a pressure of 0.69 MPa with 150 watts of microwave power and exittemperatures between 155
o
C. and 158
o
C.Note:MPa = mega pascal 1 PSI = 0.0068947 MPa and 1 MPa = 145 PSI
0.69 MPa = 100 PSI
0.015851 mL_second = 0.01585 GPM= 0.00343 gpm6013
conversion
 
1 mL_Min = 0.000264 gpm13 mL_Min 0.000264= 0.00343 gpm
13 mL/Min = 0.00343 gpm 158
o
C = 316
o
F.
 
WFI by Microwave Continuous Process
By William Greco page 3 of 5July 2009Warrington, Pa.w2gre@verizon.net
13000003030
Applying Scaling Lawsce=cewhere:e = power required to produce desired capacity ce= power required to produce reference capacity cSolving for e:ce= to scale the process up toc
3scaling up the process3
0.0250.025 gpm150 watts= 58 KW0.00343
 
The development and extension of the method of moments technique for analyzingelectromagnetic scattering by arbitrary shaped three-dimensional homogeneous lossydielectric objects has allowed combined field integral equations to define therequirements for coupling rotation and vibration of water molecules with microwaves.The surfaces of the homogeneous three-dimensional arbitrary geometrical shapes aremodeled using surface triangular patches, similar to the case of arbitrary shapedconducting objects. The development and extensions required to treat three dimensionallossy dielectric objects can be calculated. Numerical results and their comparisons arealso possible. The 58 KW required to produce 1.5 gallons per hour of WFI may bereduced by correlating the rotational and vibrational responses of the water molecule tothe microwave frequency and complex permittivity. Fine tuning elements to matchimpedance between the microwave source frequency, transmission components,and movement of the water molecules may in the future improve the absorbance of electromagnetic energy.Microwave frequencies of 915 MHz and 2.45 GHz are now being used in theexperimental process. Waveguides capable of providing up to 5.9 MW to microwaveantennas are available.Coaxial adapters can be used to transition from a waveguide element to a shieldedcoaxial cable with a higher dielectric constant. In waveguide systems, loads arefrequently used to absorb excess energy. The wavelength of radiation inside thewaveguide is determined by the properties of the material inside the waveguide and thefrequency of the radiation.

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