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Examville.com – Neuroscience – Motor Activities of the Body

Examville.com – Neuroscience – Motor Activities of the Body

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Published by Examville.com
Examville.com – Neuroscience – Motor Activities of the Body

Examville.com is a global education community where users like you can connect and interact with other students and teachers from around the world. Share, seek, download and discuss everything inside and outside the classroom.
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Examville.com – Neuroscience – Motor Activities of the Body

Examville.com is a global education community where users like you can connect and interact with other students and teachers from around the world. Share, seek, download and discuss everything inside and outside the classroom.
All you need is an email address and a password to get started.
Examville features include:
Live online classes and review sessions
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Practice online standardized tests (SAT, GRE, GMAT, LSAT, MCAT, etc.)
Q&A (post questions and solutions to academic problems)
Study groups
Marketplace
Meet Up

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Published by: Examville.com on Jul 15, 2009
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

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05/11/2014

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Examville
 
is
 
a
 
global
 
education
 
community
 
where
 
users
 
like
 
you
 
can
 
connect
 
and
 
interact
 
with
 
other
 
students
 
and
 
teachers
 
from
 
around
 
the
 
world.
 
Share,
 
seek,
 
download
 
and
 
discuss
 
everything
 
inside
 
and
 
outside
 
the
 
classroom.
 
All
 
you
 
need
 
is
 
an
 
email
 
address
 
and
 
a
 
password
 
to
 
get
 
started.
 
JOIN US FOR FREE:http://www.examville.com
 © Examville.com, LLC June 2009
 
 
 
MOTOR ACTIVITIES OF THE BODY
a. SPINAL CORD AND CRANIAL NERVE NUCLEI
 Motor Neurons
 
The activities of skeletal muscles are executed by the impulsesdischarged from the alpha motor neurons situated in ventral (anterior)gray horn of spinal cord and the nuclei of many of the cranial nervespresent in brainstem.
 
The motor neurons in the spinal cord, which innervate the extrafusalfibers of the skeletal muscles are responsible for the contraction of muscles in the upper limbs, trunk and lower part of the body.
 
The gamma motor neurons, which innervate the intrafusal fibers(muscle spindle) of the muscle, are responsible for the maintenance of muscle tone.
 
The motor neurons of the cranial nerve nuclei situated in brainstemsend their signals to the muscles of neck and upper part of trunk viacranial nerves.
 Final Common Pathway
 
The activities of a particular skeletal muscle depend upon theexcitation of alpha motor neuron (also known as lower motor neuron)in the spinal cord or cranial nerve nuclei.
 
This is the only pathway through which the signals from other parts of nervous system reach the muscles. Hence, the alpha motor neurons arecalled "Final common pathway" of motor system.
 
 
 Functions of Motor Neurons
1.
 
The motor neurons responsible for the contraction of skeletal musclesare arranged topographically in the ventral gray horn of spinal cord.2.
 
The motor neurons in the cranial nerve nuclei of brainstem innervatethe extrinsic muscles of eyeball and the muscles of face, tongue, neck and upper part of trunk.3.
 
These muscles are concerned with ocular movements and themovements of facial expressions, chewing, swallowing and themovements of head and shoulder.4.
 
The motor neurons are situated in the nuclei of cranial nerves III, IV,V, VI, VII, IX, X, XI and XII.
b. CEREBRAL CORTEX
1.
 
The cortical areas concerned with origin of motor signals are theprimary motor area, premotor area, and supplementary motor area infrontal lobe and sensory area in the parietal lobe.2.
 
The cortical areas send their output signals to spinal cord viacorticospinal tracts and to brainstem via corticobulbar tracts.3.
 
About 30% of the fibers forming corticospinal and corticobulbar tractstake their origin from primary and supplementary motor cortex, 30%from premotor area and remaining 40 % from parietal lobeparticularly from sensory area.

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