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Concept paper on IGF 2013 Indonesia Bali from Nepal's Perspective.docx

Concept paper on IGF 2013 Indonesia Bali from Nepal's Perspective.docx

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Published by ShreedeepRayamajhi
Concept Paper on Nepal's Position on Internet Governance Forum 2013 Bali Indonesia
Concept Paper on Nepal's Position on Internet Governance Forum 2013 Bali Indonesia

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Published by: ShreedeepRayamajhi on Oct 05, 2013
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Nepal’s P
osition on IGF 2013 Indonesia Bali
 Asia is a growing economy, where radical changes are happening in terms of technology and resources.Internet and its dynamic have changed its usual form from a networking channel to a daily commoditywhere every individual hold rights of privacy and individuality.
Whether it’s about hacking or child
exploitation or pornography, internet security today is the most vulnerable issue which demands aproper mechanism and regulation. Due to absence of standardization in policies and mechanism the
externalities are materializing to a new level where it’s establishing itself as threat to everyone in one or
the other form. However, the issue of security is high on alert where especially developing andunderdeveloped countries are suffering the consequence due to the laps of standard security policy.
According to Jeremy Malcolm, “Multi
-stakeholder governance is a fresh approach to the development of public policy, bringing together governments, the private sector and civil society in partnership. Themovement towards this new governance paradigm has been most marked in areas involving globalnetworks of stakeholders, too intricate to be represented by governments alone. Nowhere is this betterillustrated than on the Internet, where it is an inherent characteristic of the network that laws, and theconduct,
to which those laws are directed, will cross national borders.”
 Thus, the concept of Internet Governance Forum (IGF) is a dynamic approach which gives opportunitiesto multi stake holders in overcoming the various aspects of net neutrality and digital divide. It also helpsin further accessing to establish a uniform mechanism addressing the needs of all the stakeholders fromdeveloped countries to developing and underdeveloped countries. Especially the vacuum between thedeveloped and developing /underdeveloped countries needs a certain platform which would addresstheir problems and issues. It would further help in highlighting the corporate or social responsibilityprioritizing the rights of information access by completely abolishing discrimination. I strongly believethat IGF is an effective tool which needs to be reviewed as a weapon against irregularities andexternalities where the developed nation should endorse it for future growth and prospects.
Advantages of IGF
A board platform to address issues and problems
A standard policy and mechanism to address the problems of world over
Control over digital divide and net neutrality
No bias system
Equal opportunity of business and exposure
Bilateral relationship
Effectiveness in growth and monitoring of internet
Issue like pornography, cyber crimes, hacking and exploitation can be easily overcome
Better security policies
Disadvantages of IGF
Hard to control and monitor due to number of countries
Hard for developing and under developed to keep up with developed countries in terms of technology and manpower
Standard policies means competition which would be hard for underdeveloped and developingcountries
Nepal’s status
 Internet governance affects various critical issues such as open access, freedom of expression,innovation and new applications, commerce, development, and security which cannot be underlined.As of mid-June 2013, there were 6.84 million internet users in Nepal. The market is lead by big twoorganization Ncell and Nepal Telecom which covers 97 percent of the customers
. The country’s internet
penetration rate had reached 25.82 percent of the total population of 26.49 million as of mid-June 2013.The penetration rate was 19 percent a year ago. Bandwidth use has soared with the rising popularity of social networking sites, email and internet video. Facebook, YouTube and Google are the top threewebsites visited by Nepali internet users.Digital Development has set new goals, regarding affordability and accessibility of broadband forcountries in order to accelerate the progress of the Millennium Development Goals. These goals willmaterialize if there is fair play in the market place.
Around 90 percent of the country’s data customers
are mobile GPRS users. The remaining 10 percent are the users of 3G service, ADSL, optical fibre, cablemodem, EDVO, CDMA 1X, dial up and WiMax services.
Nepal’s telecom companies and internet service pr 
oviders (ISPs) paid Rs 3.76 billion to international carriers in bandwidth fees to access the internet in the last fiscal year where as its licensees paid Rs2.58 billion as bandwidth charges during the previous fiscal 2011-12.
Challenges and Prospects:
The Internet Governance Forum (IGF) is the only global forum where all Internet stakeholders are openlyinvited with no reservation to discuss operational, technical, commercial, and administrative aspects of managing Internet growth. It is a right of every individual country to search and look for options and tomake their voices heard in regards to their problems and best practice that can further help improve theinternet. Nepal being a part of the global Internet network needs to have its position clear in the IGF
Importance of use and access:
Internet has established itself as a daily commodity where thestandardization in use and access of internet is a major hurdle for Nepal. Nepali customers canchoose from an array of services ranging from wireless GPRS and high speed lease line service to3G mobile data service. Though the use and access has phenomenally gone but still the pricesare very high in comparison to normal standard
The number of data subscribers has increased to 6.4 million as of mid-April from 4.6 million ayear ago (as of mid-April 2012). According to the NTA, a majority of the internet subscribersare cell phone users who use GPRS
a mobile data service
Online money and e-transaction are getting popular with globalization the lack of paymentgateway seems as one of the major hindrance for developing countries like Nepal
Reach and diversity:
The reach and penetration of internet has definitively gone up by 25.82percent of the total population of 26.49 million as of mid-June 2013. The penetration rate lastyear was 19 percent
Privacy and Security:
According to the Central Investigation Bureau (CIB), this year 19 majorcases of cyber crime were filed in the fiscal year 2012/13 compared to nine the previous year.The cases filed were mostly related to social networking site, cyber frauds, cyber threats, illegaldata access and website hacking (two each), fake lottery, phishing, email fraud, email threat andATM fraud. Cases related to Facebook accounted for the largest number of cases with 10reported incidents. With increased Internet use, particularly for the purpose of e-commerce
 business agreement, paying and receiving money through Internet
some people have lodgedcomplaint at the Central Investigation Bureau after their online transactions were hacked byphishing
In protagonist approach the leading organization in internet like Internet Society(ISOC), ICANN and the U.S. government have branded internet and internet freedom withstandardization and committed efforts. The Multistakeholder Model of the IGF is a livetestimonial of that but with the increasing censorship and restriction between centralizedhierarchical, internet governance has adopted a more regulated and censored approach that iscontradictory to rights of privacy. The national governments of any nation can providelegitimate and rights-respecting modes of ordering society within their jurisdiction, butexpanding and covering outside is a question of debate in any matter or situation where is athreats to Internet freedom and privacy
Policy and openness:
Nepal lacks policy and crisis management in terms of internet dynamics.The current electronic transaction act 2008 is in midst of upgrade but it has loop holes in termsof practice and standardization
Upgrading to IPV6:
IPV6 is yet another issue of concern for the regulatory body in regards to itsmanagement and operation. The global shift of IPV6 from IPV4 is not a question of choice but anecessity of time where Nepal needs affective human resource and policy to handle thetechnology
Lack of National and regional backbone infrastructure:
Nepal is on the verge of technologyexplosion, there are loads of opportunities as well prospects aspiring but with the lack of propervision and coordination, it makes no sense. With the rise in technologies, such as those based onwireless, and regional licensing of multiple players, investment in and development of nationaland regional backbone capacity is becoming a major policy issue

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