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Atoms and Cells

Atoms and Cells

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Published by: millstoneridge1 on Jul 15, 2009
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ATOMS AND CELLS
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HUBS1401
Four organic elementsH Hydrogen (H)O Oxygen (O)N Nitrogen (N)C Carbon (C)
Atomic weight (Mass) Total number of protons and neutrons in nucleusAtomic Number
Number of protons OR electrons = always the same and equal
Electron shells
First layer – max 2 electronsSecond layer – max 8 electronsThird layer - max 8 electrons
Only need to know first three layersIsotope
Variation of standard element with different number of neutrons anddifferent atomic weight to normal
Ions
Losing or gaining an electron to change charge creates an ion
Cation
Losing an electron creates a positively charged ion
(Losing weight is always good)Anion
Gaining an electron creates a negatively charger ion(Gaining weight is bad)
Acid
Becomes ionized when placed in solution – produces positively chargedhydrogen ions (H+).Considered a proton donor
Base
Produces negatively charged hydroxide ions (OH)-.More alkaline than acidsKnown as proton acceptors
pH (potential of Hydrogen)
Scale 0 -14 – acid to alkalineNeutral pH = 7Basic substance pH
7Acid substance
7Skin pH about 5Blood pH about 7.4
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ATOMS AND CELLS
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HUBS1401
BONDS
IonicBond
This chemical bond involves a transfer of an electron,so one atom gains an electron while one atom loses an electron.One of the resulting ions carries a negative charge, and the other ion carries a positivecharge.Because opposite charges attract, the atoms bond together to form a molecule
 
Covalent Bond
The most common bond in organic molecules, a covalent bond involves the sharing ofelectrons between two atoms.The pair of shared electrons forms a new orbit that extends around the nuclei of bothatoms, producing a molecule.There are two secondary types of covalent bondsthat are relevant to biology:
 
Polar
 
Hydrogen
 
Polar Bond
Two atoms connected by a covalent bond may exert different attractions for theelectrons in the bond, producing an unevenly distributed charge.
 
 
an intermediate case between ionic and covalent bonding, with one end of themolecule slightlyNegatively charged and the other end slightly positively charged.
Resulting molecule is neutral; at close distances the uneven charge distribution canbe important. Water is an example of a polar molecule; the oxygen end has a slightpositive charge whereas the hydrogen ends are slightly negative.Polarity explains why some substances dissolve readily in water and others do not.
 
HydrogenBond
Because they’re polarized, two adjacent H
2
O (water) molecules can form a linkage
 ,
where a(electronegative)hydrogen atom of one H
2
O molecule is electro statically attracted to the (electropositive) oxygenatom of an adjacent water molecule.
molecules of water join together transiently in a hydrogen-bonded lattice.
Hydrogen bonds have only about
1
  ⁄  
20
the strength of a covalent bond, yet even this force issufficient to affect the structure of water, producing many of its unique properties, such as highsurface tension, specific heat, and heat of vaporization.Hydrogen bonds are important in many life processes,such as in replication and defining the shape of DNA molecules.
 
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ATOMS AND CELLS
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HUBS1401
ReactantsSubstances that go through changes in number or types of arrangements ofatoms within the moleculeProductSubstances produced by reactionCompoundsElements combined through chemical reactionOrganiccompoundAlso contains carbonFour families of organic compounds important to biological function
 
Carbohydrates
 
Lipids
 
Proteins
 
Nucleic acidsCarbohydratesFormed by chemical reaction process of concentration, or dehydration synthesisand broken apart by hydrolysis (Addition of water).Several sub-categories
 
Monosaccharides
 
Disaccharides
 
PolysaccharidesMonosaccharides
 Monosaccharides
, also called
monomers
or
simple sugars,
are the building blocks of largercarbohydrate molecules and are a source of stored energyKey monomers include
glucose
(also known as bloodsugar),
 fructose,
and
galactose.
These three have the same numbers of carbon (6), hydrogen(12), and oxygen (6) atoms in each molecule — C
6
H
12
O
6
— but the bonding arrangements aredifferent.Molecules with this kind of relationship are called
isomers
 Disaccharides
sugars formed by the bonding of two monosaccharides,including
sucrose
(table sugar),
lactose,
and
maltose
Polysaccharides
are formed when many monomers bond intolong, chain-like molecules.
Glycogen
is the primary polymer in the body; it breaks down toform glucose, an immediate source of energy for cells.
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