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Economics for Structural Steel Plate Girders

Economics for Structural Steel Plate Girders

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Published by thomas kilian

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Published by: thomas kilian on Jul 15, 2009
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 8.1
8
Beams and PlateGirders
8.1 Introduction
In most structures containing suspended floors the beams or girders represent asignificant proportion of the total steel content and for this reason special attention needsto be given to their cost-effective application. Reference has been made in earlierchapters to the efficient functioning of beams and girders in terms of their performance inthe overall structure; in this chapter the more detailed aspects of their design, detailingand fabrication are discussed.
8.2 Beam sections
The cheapest form of beam is one made from a standard rolled
I
-section in the commonsteel grade, 300WA, and having simple end connections. The great majority of beamsused in practice fall within this description.Obviously, for a given section modulus, the most economical section is the one having thelowest mass per metre. A study of the section tables in the
Steel Construction Handbook 
 (Ref. 5) will show that when comparing beams of nearly equal section modulus, it isalways the deepest one that has the lowest mass. This affords a simple guide to theselection of a minimum-mass section.Where a stronger section is required to accommodate high moments caused by largespans or heavy loading, it is always more economical to use a heavier rolled section thanto resort to a plate girder or castellated beam, even though the latter sections may offersavings in mass.If a beam strength greater than that given by the largest available standard rolled sectionis required, it is better first to try a plated rolled section even though it is considerablyheavier than a plate girder. This is because of the vastly more expensive operationsinvolved in cutting the plate girder web and flanges to length, tack welding it on anassembly bed and laying the final welds (which involves turning the girder over). Flangeplates welded onto a rolled section can be much more easily handled. They should bemade shorter than the beam span and should be arranged for down-hand welding asshown in Fig 8.1, which obviates the need for turning the beam over. If the bottom flangeweld is completed before the top weld a camber will be produced in the beam, which maybe desirable to counteract loading deflection.
 
 8.2
8.3 Castellated beams
By forming a standard rolled
I
-section into a castellated beam, a section is obtained withan elastic section modulus about 1,55 times that of the rolled section and a moment ofinertia about 2,33 times, at no increase in mass. The properties of these sections aregiven in the
Steel Construction Handbook 
. While these ratios appear very favourable, itmust be noted that when section modulus, i.e. moment resistance, governs, it is nearlyalways cheaper to select a larger plain section than to opt for a castellated sectionbecause of the higher cost per metre of the latter. A case for castellation can only bemade when a high level of stiffness is required (i.e. a large inertia), or where webopenings are needed to allow for the passage of underfloor services in a multi-storeybuilding. An example of where stiffness rather than bending resistance governs is a lightlyloaded girder of long span.It must also be noted that a castellated beam section can only be designed elastically;because of the web holes and the high depth-to-thickness ratio of the web the sectioncannot behave plastically.A further point to be considered is that whereas it is desirable that at both ends of thebeam a full-depth solid web should be present (to facilitate the fixing of end connections),the pitch of the openings in relation to the beam span will usually not allow this and thereis likely to be a web opening at least at one of the ends.Castellated beams are usually only made in shops specially equipped for their production.The forming of the castellated web shape involves the use of a profile gas-cutter thatfollows the outline of a specially prepared template, with a different template beingrequired for each serial size of beam. Some steel merchants offer a profile cutting servicewhere they cut the castellated shape in the web, but leave the two halves of the beamattached by small 'stitch' lengths of uncut web. The fabricator then separates the halves,welds them together and trims the ends. Before specifying a castellated beam thedesigner should ensure that it will in fact be readily available.Top plate thickerthan bottom plate
Fig 8.1: Plated rolled steel beam
Downhandwelding
 
 8.3
8.4 Plate girders
Cross section 
The most economical plate girder to fabricate is one having minimum mass, equal-sizedflanges and no web stiffeners. As with rolled
I
-sections, for a given section modulus asection with a greater depth will have a lower mass than one with a smaller depth, exceptin some instances where a thicker web is required in the deeper section.Where the compression flange is laterally unrestrained, however, it may be necessary touse a wider flange plate to resist the buckling tendency, but this will add to the costbecause of the more difficult assembly procedure.For a uniformly loaded simply-supported girder, which is fully stressed and has adeflection limited to span of 300, the minimum depthspan ratio is about 1:17 forGrade 300W steel. For a girder with a central point load the limit is 1:22. But in practicegirders of greater depths than these are usually more economical in material usage.In order to arrive at a minimum-mass cross section as much as possible of the materialshould be located in the flanges and as little as possible in the web, consistent with shearrequirements. There is usually an advantage, however, in using a somewhat thicker webin order to reduce welding distortion, or to avoid the use of or number of stiffeners. It canbe shown that for a given web depth to thickness ratio the minimum-mass cross section isthat in which the area of the two flanges combined equals that of the web, i.e. 2A
f
= A
w
.Regarding web slenderness, clause 13.4.1.1 of SABS 0162-1 gives web shearresistances in terms of h
w
t
w
ratios and stiffener spacing. According to Clause 13.4.1.3slenderness ratios up to 277 are allowed for Grade 300W steel, but as already stated theuse of very slender webs can cause welding distortion problems.An important consideration in cost reduction is the use of preferred plate widths andthicknesses for the flange and web elements. All of the girder sections listed in the
Steel 
 
Construction Handbook 
are made up of plates of preferred thicknesses cut from preferredwidths. Each net web depth is equal to a standard plate width (or sub-multiple thereof),less an allowance of 20 mm to 30 mm for edge trimming, the trimming being necessarybecause of the lack of edge straightness in as-rolled plates. For preferred plate sizes seeChapter 3.
Web stiffeners 
Where the use of intermediate web stiffeners is considered from the point of view of webstability, it will often be found cheaper to specify a thicker non-stiffened web than to usestiffeners. The cost per ton of a girder with stiffeners on both sides of the web can behigher than that of one without stiffeners by up to 20 per cent or more. Obviously a carefulcheck should be made on the necessity or otherwise of stiffeners because of the potentialfor saving through their omission.If it is decided to use intermediate stiffeners, they may be placed on one side of the webonly. Although a single stiffener will have to be wider, it will be smaller in section than the

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