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Economics of Structural Steel Work Dimensional

Economics of Structural Steel Work Dimensional

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Published by thomas kilian

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Published by: thomas kilian on Jul 15, 2009
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Co-ordination ofDimensions
16.1 Introduction
As used in this chapter, the term co-ordination of dimensions in buildings means thedetermination at the planning stage of the main and secondary dimensions of a buildingon a methodical basis that will result in a simple, orderly and therefore more economicallayout of the structure. It implies that no dimension should be decided upon withoutthought being given to its inter-relationship with other dimensions. It embraces the choiceof the main overall dimensions, the division of these into suitable sub-multiples, as well asthe choice of the dimensions of the components in the building. The latter would includesuch pre-fabricated items as windows, doors, cladding panels, pre-cast floor slabs, etc.As these items are usually available in standard sizes it may in fact be their dimensionsthat will have a bearing on the choice of the main dimensions of the structure rather thanthe other way around.Some of the advantages of pre-determining dimensions on a methodical basis instead ofin a haphazard manner are:a) Simplification and convenience in the planning stage.b) A better relationship between the various parts of the structure.c) A greater opportunity for the incorporation of standard components.d) The simplification of setting out on site.e) Economy of construction resulting from the achievement of maximum similarity,compatibility and repetition of the structural elements and their dimensions.
16.2 Modular co-ordination
Modular co-ordination is the principle whereby a standard module is used as the basis ofmeasurement for dimensional co-ordination. A module is therefore a linear dimensionthat, when used in whole-number multiples, gives the dimensions used in a planning grid.Modular co-ordination as referred to here, and dimensional co-ordination as outlinedabove, both form part of the overall physical planning of the building.In South Africa a basic module of 100 mm has been adopted, as in most Westerncountries where modular co-ordination is being applied. This is in line withRecommendation R 1006 of the International Standards Organisation, which states thatthe international standard value of the Basic Module is 100 mm. For convenience, thesymbol M is used to denote the basic module.
Derived modules are multiples or sub-multiples of the basic module. According toSABS 993-1972 the preferred multi-modules for horizontal dimensions of largecomponents and structural work are 3M (300 mm), 6M (600 mm) and 12M (1 200 mm).Therefore, in choosing values for the main setting-out dimensions of buildings, multiplesof the above multi-modules should preferably be used.An important advantage of modular co-ordination is that, when applied to standardbuilding components, it yields a range of products that, though widely diversified in shape,size and material, are all inter-related dimensionally in a way that will enable them to beused together in a building without modification. It is clear that if the building frameworkon the one hand and the components that go into it on the other are both designed on thesame modular principles, their combination in the final structure will be made so mucheasier.So far, full advantage has not been taken of metrication in South Africa in theimplementation of the modular dimensioning of components, but it is to be hoped that themanufacture of prefabricated components on a modular basis will become morewidespread as time goes on.
16.3 Application to steel framed buildings
In the context of the structural framework for steel buildings, the co-ordination ofdimensions has to do with the orderly selection of controlling dimensions for the mainplanning grid (e.g. column centres), which in turn is a measure of the span sizes and baylengths, and then the division of these dimensions into suitable sub-multiples such astruss and intermediate column spacings, truss and girder panel sizes, etc, to achievemaximum simplicity, convenience and repetition.The best way to illustrate the idea is by reference to a typical building structure, and thefollowing paragraphs deal with particular aspects of building framing, viz. maindimensions, bay lengths, spans, truss spacings, lattice girder framing, crane girders,handrailing, etc. The principles outlined can of course be applied to almost any part of thestructure.
16.4 Main dimensions in plan
Fig 16.1 shows the arrangement of a typical steel-framed crane gantry building with onemain bay and a lean-to. It will be used as an example of how the main or controllingdimensions are divided up in accordance with the concept stated above. It is assumedthat the building length, width and height have been dictated by functional requirements,but that the bay lengths (along the building) are left to the designer.In this case it is suggested that a bay length of 12,0 m be chosen, for the followingreasons:
Fig 16.1: General arrangement of typical steel-framed building

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