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Practical Introduction to Power System Protection & Control

Practical Introduction to Power System Protection & Control

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Published by riogomes

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Published by: riogomes on Jul 15, 2009
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07/14/2014

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PIPSPCPIPSPCPIPSPCPIPSPC
 
ractical 
 
ntroduction 
To rotection 
ystem 
ower 
And ontrol 
 
 Prepared by
 
 Eng:
 Ahmed Safie Eldin Ahmed Safie Eldin Ahmed Safie Eldin Ahmed Safie Eldin
 
 2005  2005  2005  2005 
      P    r    a    c     t      i    c    a      l
 
      C    o    n     t    r    o      l
 
      P    r    o     t    e    c     t      i    o    n
 
Power
 
      I    n     t    r    o      d    u    c     t      i    o    n
 
System
 
 
 I
 
Contents
 
POWER SYSTEMS PRINCIPALS
……………………….……………… 1
 POWER SYSTEM FAULTS
………………………...……………………... 1
 
Fault Causes
………………………………………………………………. 2
Fault Effects
……………………………………………………………… 3
Fault Types
………………………………………………………………… 3
 Symmetrical Components and Fault Types
……………………………4
 INSTRUMENT TRANSFORMER
…………………………………... …….5
 
Basic Idea of Instrument Transformer
…………………………………5
 Current Transformer
……………………………………………….……. 6Measuring And Protection Cores …………………………………. 7Open Circuit Current Transformer …………………………..……9
 
Voltage Transformer
…………………………………………………..…10
 
DC SYSTEM
……………………………………………………..………………12
 
DC-Earth Fault Alarm Device
……………………………………….…13
 
PROTECTION RELAYS
………………………………………………….…14
 
Over Current Protection
……………………………………………...…15
 
Instantaneous Over Current Relay …………………………….…15Definite Time Over Current Relay ……………………………..…16Inverse Time Over Current Relay ……………………………...…19Direction Over Current Relay …………………………………..…19
Earth Fault Relay
…………………………………………...……………21
 
Instantaneous, Definite Time, and Inverse Time Types …………21Directional Earth Fault Relay ……………………………..………24
Transmission Line Protection
…………………………………..………25
 
Distance Relays ………………………………………………….…27Directional Impedance Relay Characteristics ……..……………28Mho Characteristic …………….…………………………….……29Multi-Stage Distance Relay ……………………………………..…29Quadrilateral Characteristics …………………………………..…30Under Reach …………………………………………………….…31Over Reach ……………………………...…………………………33Ground Faults and Compensation Factor ………………………. 33Distance Protection Schemes ………………………………...……34Power Swing ……………………………………………………...…40
 
 II
 
Differential Relays
…………………………………………………..……41
 
Principles Of Differential Relay ………………………………..…41External Fault Condition ……………………………………….…42Internal Fault Condition ………………………………………...…42Biased Differential Relay ……………………………………….….43Practical Example Of Differential Relay …………………………44Tripping Characteristics And Harmonic Restrain ………………46Differential Relays And Inrush Current …………………………48
 
Restricted Earth Fault Relay
……………………………..……………50
 Mechanical Protection
……………………………………………..……
52
Buchholz Relay ………………………………………………….…52Winding Temperature Indicator …………………………………54Oil Temperature Indicator …………………………………...……56Pressure Relief …………………………………………………..…56
Bus Bar Protection
………………………………………………………59
 
External Faults ………………………………………………….…60Internal Fault ………………………………………………….……60Practical Example Of Bus Bar Protection …..……………………62Tripping Circuit of Bus Bar Protection
 
……………………..……63
 
Breaker Failure
……………………………………………………………65
 
CONTROL AND INTERLOCKING
……………………………..………67
PARALLEL OPERATION OF POWER TRANSFORMERS
……83
 

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