It is primarily used for the preparation of bread,cakes,pastriesandpies,tarts,quiches, andcookies. Such items are sometimes referred to as"baked goods," and are sold at a bakery. A person who prepares baked goods asa profession is called abaker . It is also used for the preparation of bakedpotatoes, baked apples,baked beans, some pasta dishes such aslasagna, andvarious other foods, such as thepretzel.
is apowder made of cerealgrains. It is the main ingredient of bread,which is a staple food for many civilizations, making the availability of adequate supplies of flour a major economic and political issue at varioustimes throughout history
is a round or oval body laid by thefemaleof any number of different species, consisting of anovumsurrounded by layers of membranesand an outer casing, which acts to nourish and protect adevelopingembryoand its nutrient reserves. Mostedibleeggs, includingbirdeggs andturtleeggs, consist of a protective, ovaleggshell, thealbumen (egg white), thevitellus(egg yolk), and various thin membranes.Every part is edible, although the eggshell is generally discarded.Nutritionally, eggs are considered a good source of proteinandcholine.
) is any one of a number of substances used indoughsandbattersthat cause a foaming action whichlightens and softens the finished product. The leavening agent—biological,chemical, or even mechanical—reacts with moisture, heat, acidity, or other triggers to produce gas (usuallycarbon dioxideand sometimesethanol)that becomes trapped asbubbleswithin the dough. When a dough or batter is mixed, thestarchin the flour mixes with the water in the dough toform a matrix (often supported further by proteins likeglutenor other polysaccharides likepentosansor xanthan gum), then gelatinizes and"sets"; the holes left by the gas bubbles remain.
is a dry chemicalleavening agentused to increasethe volume and lighten the texture of baked goods such asmuffins,cakes, andcookies(biscuits). Baking powder works by releasingcarbon dioxidegas into a batter or dough through an acid-basereaction, causing bubbles in the wet mixture to expand and thusleaveningthe mixture. It is used instead of yeastfor end-productswhere fermentation flavors would be undesirable or where thebatter lacks the elastic structure to hold gas bubbles for more thana few minutes.
. Sodium bicarbonateis a white solid that iscrystallinebut often appears as a finepowder. It has a slightalkalinetaste resembling that of washingsoda (sodium carbonate). It is a component of the mineralnatronand is found dissolved in manymineral springs. The natural mineralform is known as
meaning "aeratedsalt", was widelyused in the 19th century for both sodium bicarbonate andpotassium bicarbonate. The term has now fallen out of commonusage.
areeukaryoticmicroorganismsclassified in thekingdomFungi, with about 1,500speciescurrently described; they dominatefungal diversity in the oceans. Most reproduceasexuallybybudding, although a few do so bybinary fission. Yeasts areunicellular, although some species with yeast forms may becomemulticellular through the formation of a string of connected buddingcells known as
as seen in mostmolds. Yeast size can vary greatly depending on the species,typically measuring 3–4µmindiameter , although some yeasts canreach over 40 µm.
(seespelling differences) is the sensory impression of afoodor other substance, and is determined mainly by the chemical sensesof tasteandsmell. The "trigeminal senses", which detect chemicalirritantsin themouthandthroat, may also occasionally determine flavor. The flavor of the food, as such, can be altered withnaturalor artificial flavorants,which affect these senses.Flavorant is defined as a substance that gives another substance flavor,altering the characteristics of the solute, causing it to become sweet, sour,tangy, etc
is adietary mineralcomposed primarily of sodium chloridethatis essential for animallife, but toxic to most land plants. Saltflavor is one of thebasic tastes, an importantpreservativeand a popular food seasoning.7.Cocoa powder is unsweetened chocolate (technically, chocolate liquor)that has been partially defatted and then ground into a powder.Cocoa powder is good for hot cocoa, reduced-fat chocolate recipes,super-fudgy brownies, layer cakes, chocolate tart dough, and chocolatesyrup. And for rollingtruffles, of course. It’s not good for snacking. Wholechocolate is best for everything else: hot fudge sauce, dipping,candymaking, ganache, and snacking.