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basic engridients in baking

basic engridients in baking

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BASIC ENGRIDIENTS IN BAKINGBaking
is the technique of prolongedcookingof foodby dry heat acting by convection, and not byradiation, normally in anoven, but also in hot ashes, or on hot stones.
It is primarily used for the preparation of bread,cakes,pastriesand pies,tarts,quiches, andcookies. Such items are sometimes referred to as "baked goods," and are sold at a bakery. A person who prepares baked goods asa profession is called abaker . It is also used for the preparation of bakedpotatoes, baked apples,baked beans, some pasta dishes such aslasagna, and various other foods, such as thepretzel.
1.
Flour 
is apowder made of cerealgrains. It is the main ingredient of bread, which is a staple food for many civilizations, making the availability of adequate supplies of flour a major economic and political issue at varioustimes throughout history
2.
An
egg
is a round or oval body laid by thefemaleof any number of different species, consisting of anovumsurrounded by layers of membranesand an outer casing, which acts to nourish and protect adevelopingembryoand its nutrient reserves. Mostedibleeggs, including birdeggs andturtleeggs, consist of a protective, ovaleggshell, the albumen (egg white), thevitellus(egg yolk), and various thin membranes. Every part is edible, although the eggshell is generally discarded.Nutritionally, eggs are considered a good source of proteinandcholine.
3.
Sugar 
(see below for etymology) is a class of ediblecrystalline substances, mainlysucrose,lactose, andfructose. Humantaste buds  interpret itsflavor assweet. Sugar as a basicfood carbohydrateprimarily comes fromsugar caneand fromsugar beet,but also appears infruit, honey,sorghum,sugar maple(inmaple syrup), and in many other  sources. It forms the main ingredient incandy.Excessive consumption of sugar has been associated with increased incidences of type 2diabetes,obesityandtooth decay.
4.
Milk
is an opaque white liquid produced by themammary glandsof mammals(includingmonotremes). It provides the primary source of  nutritionfor newborn mammals before they are able todigestother types of food. The earlylactationmilk is known ascolostrum, and carries the mother'santibodiesto the baby. It can reduce the risk of many diseases inthe baby. The exact components of raw milk varies by species, but itcontains significant amounts of saturated fat, proteinandcalciumas well asvitamin C. Cow's milk has apHranging from 6.4 to 6.8, making it slightlyacidic.
 
a.
Butter 
is adairy productmade bychurningfresh or fermented  creamor milk. It is generally used as aspreadand acondiment, as well as incookingapplications such as baking, sauce making, andfrying. Butter consists of butterfat, water and milkproteins. Most frequently made fromcows'milk, butter can also bemanufactured from that of other mammals, includingsheep,goats, buffalo, andyaks.Salt,flavoringsandpreservativesare sometimes added to butter.Renderingbutter producesclarified butter or 
,which is almost entirely butterfat.
5.
A
leavening agent
(also
leavening
or 
leaven
) is any one of a number of substances used indoughsandbattersthat cause a foaming action which lightens and softens the finished product. The leavening agent—biological,chemical, or even mechanical—reacts with moisture, heat, acidity, or other triggers to produce gas (usuallycarbon dioxideand sometimesethanol) that becomes trapped asbubbleswithin the dough. When a dough or batter is mixed, thestarchin the flour mixes with the water in the dough toform a matrix (often supported further by proteins likeglutenor other polysaccharides likepentosansor xanthan gum), then gelatinizes and "sets"; the holes left by the gas bubbles remain.
a.
Baking powder 
is a dry chemicalleavening agentused to increasethe volume and lighten the texture of baked goods such asmuffins,cakes, andcookies(biscuits). Baking powder works by releasing carbon dioxidegas into a batter or dough through an acid-basereaction, causing bubbles in the wet mixture to expand and thusleaveningthe mixture. It is used instead of yeastfor end-products where fermentation flavors would be undesirable or where thebatter lacks the elastic structure to hold gas bubbles for more thana few minutes.
 b.
Sodium bicarbonate
or 
sodium hydrogen carbonate
is thechemical compoundwith the formula NaHCO
3
. Sodium bicarbonateis a white solid that iscrystallinebut often appears as a finepowder. It has a slightalkalinetaste resembling that of washingsoda (sodium carbonate). It is a component of the mineralnatron  and is found dissolved in manymineral springs. The natural mineralform is known as
. It is also produced artificially.
 
Since it has long been known and is widely used, thesalthas manyrelated names such as
baking soda
,
bread soda
,
cooking soda
,
bicarbonate of soda
. Colloquially, its name is shortened to
sodium bicarb
,
bicarb soda
, or simply
bicarb
. The word
saleratus
, fromLatin 
sal æratus
meaning "aeratedsalt", was widelyused in the 19th century for both sodium bicarbonate andpotassium bicarbonate. The term has now fallen out of commonusage.
c.
 Yeasts
areeukaryotic microorganismsclassified in thekingdom  Fungi, with about 1,500speciescurrently described; they dominate fungal diversity in the oceans. Most reproduceasexuallybybudding, although a few do so bybinary fission. Yeasts are unicellular, although some species with yeast forms may becomemulticellular through the formation of a string of connected buddingcells known as
, or 
as seen in mostmolds. Yeast size can vary greatly depending on the species,typically measuring 3–4µmindiameter , although some yeasts can reach over 40 µm.
6.
Flavor 
or 
flavour 
(seespelling differences) is the sensory impression of afoodor other substance, and is determined mainly by the chemical senses of tasteandsmell. The "trigeminal senses", which detect chemicalirritants  in themouthandthroat, may also occasionally determine flavor. The flavor  of the food, as such, can be altered withnaturalor artificial flavorants,which affect these senses.Flavorant is defined as a substance that gives another substance flavor,altering the characteristics of the solute, causing it to become sweet, sour,tangy, etc
a.
Salt
is adietary mineralcomposed primarily of sodium chloridethat is essential for animallife, but toxic to most land plants. Saltflavor   is one of thebasic tastes, an importantpreservativeand a popular  food seasoning.7.Cocoa powder is unsweetened chocolate (technically, chocolate liquor)that has been partially defatted and then ground into a powder.Cocoa powder is good for hot cocoa, reduced-fat chocolate recipes,super-fudgy brownies, layer cakes, chocolate tart dough, and chocolatesyrup. And for rollingtruffles, of course. It’s not good for snacking. Wholechocolate is best for everything else: hot fudge sauce, dipping,candymaking, ganache, and snacking.

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