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4) PERIOD OF DECLINE OF PLANING COMMISSION (1968-1980)
the decline of planning commission is an important decision making body coincided with the fall of Ayub govt.after march , 1969 , the third five plan was virtually abandoned. The govt of PPP, which followed the collapseof the military govt, continued to be extremely suspicious of the planning commission and, in the early years, itwas almost totally ignored. One reason for this was that the govt decided to run the economy through annually plans, rather than through a comprehensive five-year plan, mainly because of the considerable politicaluncertainties in the country as well as economic uncertainties. Zia govt emphasized the need for a five-year plan. Consequently, the fifth five-year plan to cover the period (1978-1983) was published but the govt never seriously perused the plan. Little reference was, therefore, made to he fifth five-year plan in the annual plansand the over all review of the economic performance.
5) ATTEMPTS AT THE REVIVAL OF PLANING COMMISSION
in early 1980’s the Zia govt took steps to revive the planning commission as an effective and authoritativeeconomic decision making body. The sixth five year plan was formulated in 1983 fot the period (1983-1988)and was successfully implemented. In this period the planning commission played its role effectively. In 1988 ,the document of seventh five year plan and second perspective plan for the periods 1988-1993 and 1988-2003was prepared and published bur in 1988 , PPP govt gained power and the seventh five year plan was never implemented .
Early Foreign Policy
Pakistan's early foreign policy espoused nonalignment. Despite disputes with India, the policies of the twocountries were similar: membership in the Commonwealth of Nations; no commitment to either the United Statesor the Soviet Union; and a role in the UN.Pakistan's foreign policy stance shifted significantly in 1953 when it accepted the United States offer of militaryand economic assistance in return for membership in an alliance system designed to contain internationalcommunism. When the administration of Dwight D. Eisenhower sought a series of alliances in the "NorthernTier"--Pakistan, Iran, and Turkey--and in East Asia, Pakistan became a candidate for membership in each. In 1954Pakistan signed a Mutual Defense Agreement with the United States and became a member of the Southeast AsiaTreaty Organization (SEATO). The following year, Pakistan joined Iran, Iraq, and Turkey in the Baghdad Pact,later converted into the Central Treaty Organization (CENTO) after Iraq's withdrawal in 1959. Pakistan also leased bases to the United States for intelligence-gathering and communications facilities. Pakistan saw these agreementsnot as bulwarks against Soviet or Chinese aggression, but as a means to bolster itself against India.
STRUCTURE OF THE ECONOMY
Pakistan attained nationhood under difficult circumstances .At the partition of British India in 1947 resulting in thecreation of the independent nations of India and Pakistan, Pakistan was an agrarian economy in which a smallnumber of powerful landowners with large holdings dominated the countryside. The majority of the populationconsisted of tenant farmers who cultivated small plots for a meager existence. Scant rainfall in West Pakistan(present-day Pakistan) forced farmers to rely on the extensive irrigation system developed by the British. Theheadwaters of the Indus River and its main tributaries, however, were under Indian control. Disputes arose betweenthe two nations and were not settled until the Indus Waters Treaty of 1960 was signed.Prepared by: FARHAN ASLAM , MBA(R) University Of Agriculture Faisalabad(UAF)