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Basics of Sensors

Basics of Sensors

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Published by BHUSHAN

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Published by: BHUSHAN on Jul 16, 2009
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05/11/2014

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Table of Contents
Introduction.............................................................................2Sensors...................................................................................4Limit Switches.........................................................................8International Limit Switches..................................................18North American Limit Switches.............................................22BERO Sensors.......................................................................27Inductive Proximity Sensors Theory of Operation..................28Inductive Proximity Sensor Family.........................................40Capacitive Proximity Sensors Theory of Operation................54Capacitive Proximity Sensor Family.......................................57Ultrasonic Proximity Sensors Theory of Operation.................59Ultrasonic Proximity Sensor Family.......................................68Photoelectric Sensors Theory of Operation............................80Photoelectric Family of Sensors............................................93Sensor Applications...............................................................99Review Answers..................................................................107Final Exam...........................................................................108
 
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Introduction
Welcome to another course in the STEP 2000 series,
S
iemens
T
echnical
E
ducation
P
rogram, designed to prepare ourdistributors to sell Siemens Energy & Automation productsmore effectively. This course covers
Sensors
and relatedproducts.Upon completion of
Sensors
you should be able to:
Describe advantages, disadvantages, and applications oflimit switches, photoelectric sensors, inductive sensors,capacitive sensors, and ultrasonic sensors
Describe design and operating principles of mechanicallimit switches
Identify components of International and North Americanmechanical limit switches
Describe design and operating principles of inductive,capacitive, ultrasonic, and photoelectric sensors anddescribe differences and similarities
Apply correction factors where appropriate to proximitysensors
Identify the various scan techniques of photoelectricsensors
Identify ten categories of inductive sensors and sensors ineach category
Describe the effects of dielectric constant on capacitiveproximity sensors
Identify environmental influences on ultrasonic sensors
Identify types of ultrasonic sensors that require manualadjustment, can be used with SONPROG, and require theuse of a signal evaluator
 
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Describe the difference between light operate and darkoperate modes of a photoelectric sensor
Describe the use of fiber optics and laser technology usedin Siemens photoelectric sensors
Select the type of sensor best suited for a particularapplication based on material, sensing distance, andsensor load requirementsThis knowledge will help you better understand customerapplications. In addition, you will be better able to describeproducts to customers and determine important differencesbetween products. You should complete
Basics of Electricity
and
Basics of Control Components
before attempting
Sensors
. An understanding of many of the concepts covered in
Basics of Electricity
and
Basics of Control Components
isrequired for
Sensors
.If you are an employee of a Siemens Energy & Automationauthorized distributor, fill out the final exam tear-out card andmail in the card. We will mail you a certificate of completion ifyou score a passing grade. Good luck with your efforts.BERO, SIMATIC, SONPROG, and SIGUARD are registeredtrademarks of Siemens Energy & Automation, Inc.National Electrical Code® and NEC® are registered trademarksof the National Fire Protection Association, Quincy, MA 02269.Portions of the National Electrical Code are reprinted withpermission from NFPA 70-1999, National Electrical CodeCopyright, 1998, National Fire Protection Association, Quincy,MA 02269. This reprinted material is not the complete andofficial position of the National Fire Protection Association onthe referenced subject which is represented by the standard inits entirety.Underwriters Laboratories, Inc. is a registered trademark ofUnderwriters Laboratories, Inc., Northbrook, IL 60062. Theabbreviation “ULis understood to mean UnderwritersLaboratories, Inc.National Electrical Manufacturers Association is located at 2101L. Street, N.W., Washington, D.C. 20037. The abbreviationNEMAis understood to mean National ElectricalManufacturers Association.Other trademarks are the property of their respective owners.

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