, M. et al.:
Spatial and environmental planning of sustainable regional development in Serbia
availability of infrastructure, knowledge andinnovation; strengthening the economic base,quality of the environment and infrastructure ofurban services; wise management in usingnatural and cultural heritage, promotingcooperation at regional, cross-border andtransnational levels etc. Some of the problemsand possibilities concerning implementation ofprovisions and concepts of Europeandocuments shall be indicated in this paper.The implementation of strategic documentsand establishment of sustainable territorialdevelopment is facing difficulties, partlybecause spatial planning is not among theUnion’s original jurisdictions, but rather fallsunder the jurisdiction of member states. ChiefEU policies are the basic problem, primarilythe Lisbon strategy/treaty, prioritizingmacroeconomic competitiveness over socialand environmental objectives. According tosome estimates, most basic European sectoralpolicies are aimed at achieving economiccompetitiveness (from transport to urbanpolicies) and therefore indirectly giveadvantage and contribute to the concentrationof economic and innovative activities in alimited number of metropolitan regions(Kunzmann, 2006).Although the implementation of documents onthe Union's territorial development is notobligatory, but they rather represent a guiding,strategic framework to coordinate variouspolicies, experiences in their implementationto date have been positive, primarily inimplementing new approaches and concepts.The implementation of these documents in theEU countries is based on the principle ofsubsidiarity and developing horizontal(intersectoral at the same level ofadministration) and vertical (between the levelsof administration - Union, transnational,national, regional and local levels)coordination. From the EU standpoint, mostimportant are coordination and cooperation attransnational and regional levels, because theyenable the resolution of the most importantissues of developing European territory -Trans-European transport systems,environmental protection, functional andeconomic connections between regions,cross-border areas etc.The ESDP document exerted a powerfulinfluence on Europeanisation of spatialplanning and planning methodology, whichadapted both to realising sustainabledevelopment and territorial cohesion andcompetitiveness. Different from traditionalland-use planning, spatial planning was moreoriented towards unifying the spatial dimensionof development with economic, social,environmental and sectoral policies. In a post-industrial information society, spatial planningis expected to represent a foundation forsustainable development policies and policiesthat contribute to or influence sustainableterritorial development. The basic reasons areas follows:
Cultural and landscape diversity ofEuropean space shall be of crucial interestfor the future economic development of theEU. The role of spatial planning andspatially relevant policies is to determineregionally differentiated values andresources and protect them fromuncontrolled economic development anduncontrolled and unsustainabledevelopment of infrastructure systems.
Spatial planning gathers solutions forproblems of regional development andpreserving regional identity, culture,tradition and quality of life of inhabitants.No other policy can comprehensively viewand guide all dimensions of sustainableterritorial development.
High-level discussions on spatialplanning in the EU shall influence theadaptation of European sectoral policies tothe Pan-European spatial framework andthe implementation of estimates ofterritorial influence, so as to enableguiding spatial implications of sectoralmeasures and activities on regions, urbanand rural settlements (Kunzmann, 2006).The cohesion policy of the European Union isparticularly targeted at regions, regionalpolicies and the role of regional developmentin reducing economic and social disparities,primarily in production, productivity andemployment, which were deepened by itsterritorial spread. At NUTS II level in 2005, theproportion of gross national product was 8:1between the most developed Londonmetropolitan and the least developed Europeanregion, Lithuania (Growing Regions, GrowingEurope, 2007).
of the European Union isfocused on implementing Lisbon strategy andthe EU Sustainable Development Strategy &tasks to increase productivity, employment andsustainable development of European regions.The second largest support from Europeanfunds for the period 2007 - 2013 is secured forregional development policies, with a priorityfor impoverished regions and overcomingregional disparities (Alden, 2007). Europeanregional policy was designed so that itsspecific results in improving social andeconomic cohesion contribute to reducing thegap between developed and undevelopedstates and regions. Special attention was paidto the scientific approach in regional policies.Experiences from various European regionsindicate that the contexts of regional planningand regional development are changingrapidly. Within the GRIDS project (Bestpractice guidelines for instruments of regionaldevelopment and spatial planning in enlargedEU) anbd INTERREG IIIC program, it wasperceived in several examples that traditionalregional policies did not provide expectedresults in view of more balanced developmentand competitiveness of regions.Discussions were held over the previous yearsabout new paradigms of regional developmentand new approaches to resolving problems ofregional disparity and competitiveness. Anentire spectrum of topics arose withintheoretical contemplations of regionaldevelopment - on regional competitiveness,social capital, knowledge-based economy,flexible regional specialisation etc. Varioustheories, concepts and models are beingquestioned, such as the central place theory(Christaller), growth poles (Perroux), core-periphery spatial and economic developmentmodel (Myrdal and Hirschman) etc. Theconcepts of balanced polycentric regionaldevelopment, nodal regions - functional-urbanregions - daily urban systems etc. weredeveloped on the basis of combining modifiedclassical theories and models. New conceptsand models are being researched, such aslearning regions (Cooke), intelligent urbanregions, regional innovation clusters etc.(ibid).The nodal region concept came intoprominence in
regional and spatialplanning
. Selecting nodal regions andplanned guidance of their development is oneof the most important premises in the processof rational organisation of space. Europeanfunctional-integration areas and multimodalcorridors that shall link big city centres moreintensively and contribute to the creation of anintegral polystructural urban system ofbalanced hierarchy and powerful horizontal(spatial) and vertical (functional) connectionshave been determined. One of the intendedmodels is also the model of Europeanmetropolitan regions - EMR, highly urbanized