Welcome to Scribd, the world's digital library. Read, publish, and share books and documents. See more
Download
Standard view
Full view
of .
Look up keyword
Like this
0Activity
0 of .
Results for:
No results containing your search query
P. 1
Spatial and Environmental Planning of Sustainable Regional Development in Serbia

Spatial and Environmental Planning of Sustainable Regional Development in Serbia

Ratings: (0)|Views: 5|Likes:
Published by iciiciici
Spatial and Environmental Planning of Sustainable Regional Development in Serbia
Spatial and Environmental Planning of Sustainable Regional Development in Serbia

More info:

Published by: iciiciici on Oct 07, 2013
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

Availability:

Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd
See more
See less

10/07/2013

pdf

text

original

 
SPATIUM International Review UDK 711.2(497.11) ; 502.131.1:711.2(497.11)No. 21, December 2009,
 
p. 39-52 Review paper
spatium
 
39
SPATIAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL PLANNINGOF SUSTAINABLE REGIONAL DEVELOPMENTIN SERBIA
Marija Maksin-Mi 
ć 
ć 
1
, University Singidunum, Faculty of tourism and hospitality management, Belgrade, Serbia
Saša Miliji 
ć 
, Institute of Architecture and Urban & Spatial Planning of Serbia, Belgrade, Serbia
Marina Nenkovi 
ć 
-Rizni 
ć 
, Institute of Architecture and Urban & Spatial Planning of Serbia, Belgrade, Serbia
The paper analyses the planning framework for sustainable territorial and regional development. The spatial and environmental  planning should play the key role in coordination and integration of different planning grounds in achieving the sustainable regional development. The paper discusses the spatial planning capacity to offer the integral view of the sustainable territorial development. The brief review of tendencies in new spatial planning and regional policy has been given. The focus is on theconcept of balanced polycentric development of European Union. The guiding principles of spatial planning in regard of  planning system reform in European countries have been pointed out. The changes in paradigm of regional policy, and thetasks of European regional spatial planning have been discussed. In Serbia problems occur in regard with the lack of coordinating sectoral planning with spatial and environmental planning. Partly the problem lies in the legal grounds, namely in non codification of laws and unregulated horizontal and vertical coordination at all levels of governance. The possibilities for the implementation of spatial planning principles and concepts of European Union sustainable territorial and regional development have been analized on the case of three regional spatial plans of eastern and southeastern regions in Serbia. Thedissadvantages in implementing the strategic environmental impact assessment as an instrument for coordination and  integration of sectorial planning with spatial and environmental planning have been analized. The strategic environmental  impact assessment has been implemented only in the spatial planning process. Through spatial planning process its feedback effect on sectorial planning has been indirectly achieved. The priority actions in Serbia for achieving the spatial and environmental planning role in coordination and integration of different planning grounds in sustainable regional development  have been given.
Key words
 : sustainable territorial and regional development, regional spatial planning, sectoral planning, coordination and  integration, strategic environmental impact assessment.
THE ROLE OF SPATIAL ANDENVIRONMENTAL PLANNING INSUSTAINABLE TERRITORIAL ANDREGIONAL DEVELOPMENT OF THEEUROPEAN UNION1 
The orientation towards establishing unified,integral strategic planning is currently presentin all European countries with developedplanning systems.
1
Danijelova 29, 11 000 Beograd, Serbiamicic70a@yahoo.com
Integral strategic planning can occur solely asa consequence of an
integral
view ofdevelopment and future. It can not happensimply by joining social, economic, spatial andenvironmental components or developmentaspects. In order to overcome partial planningor establish a comprehensive view and anorganised direction of spatial systems anddecision-making, one must make manyassumptions (economic, political, regulatoryetc.) which have been implemented in fewcountries (the Netherlands, Finland and theScandinavian countries).With the development of the sustainabledevelopment concept, tendencies to integratespatial
2
and environmental planning and detachthem into a separate block of institutions -considered able to have a coordinating andintegrating role in planning and directingdevelopment - are becoming increasinglyemphasised. These expectations are based on
2
The paper is prepared as a part of the scientificprojects TP 16013 “Approach and concept forcompilation and implementation of Strategy of SpatialDevelopment of Serbia", and TP 16007 “SustainableDevelopment and Organization of Spas and OtherTourist Settlements in Serbia”, financed by the Republicof Serbia Ministry of Science and TechnologicalDevelopment.
 
Maksin-Mi
ć
i
ć
, M. et al.:
Spatial and environmental planning of sustainable regional development in Serbia
40 spatium
the necessity of integral and problem-basedapproaches to planning and control overgeneral resources, and the necessity ofcoordination and cooperation aimed atdevelopment of the respective sub-systems,co-existing in actual space and theenvironment.Along with the aforementioned, it should bekept in mind that there are significantdifferences between the spatial planningsystems of individual European Unioncountries, due to differences in geographicalconditions (size and density of population),historical and cultural conditioning, inheritedland use patterns, the extent of urban andeconomic development, political andideological aspirations. Similarities emerge inrelation to the consistency in recognising thesignificance of setting the framework forpolicies and procedures in utilisation of space,environmental protection and sustainabledevelopment, and relations towards broadersocial and economic goals. This means that itis possible to establish common frameworksand principles to develop the system ofplanning and - within these limits - spatialplanning, but also that the systems willdevelop differently and adapted to thespecificities of each state. This position wasalso confirmed by recent surveys (UNECE2008), which do not explicitly recommend auniversal approach to strategic planning, albeitgranted that the integrated strategic approachis present in all reformed systems of spatialplanning in European countries.What is expected of spatial planning today,primarily at the level of the European Unionand its regions? What are the basic changes inapproach, policies and principles of spatialplanning, and the possibilities of theirimplementation in local practice?After almost three decades, spatial planninghas, starting from local and national, taken on aEuropean dimension. At the level of theEuropean Union and individual member states,spatial planning can still not boast sufficientlystrong political and institutional support inrelation to sectoral policies, primarily inrelation to agrarian and transportation policies.Apart from this, the popularity of spatialplanning has increased over the last decade.Why? Advocating the strengthening of theEuropean Union's social, economic andterritorial cohesion on the one hand, andvarious - often adverse effects of sectoralpolicies to the desired realisation of cohesionand competitiveness of Europe as a continent -on the other, have both conditioned the searchfor the most suitable tool to integrate differentaspects of general and sectoral policies andrealise sustainable territorial development.Spatial planning is being promoted as one ofthe instruments of sustainable developmentthat can offer an integral view of futuredevelopment of territories. The assumedcapacity of spatial planning is based on itsspatial dimension and capacity to coordinateand integrate various policies, from economicdevelopment, transport and environmentalprotection to cultural policies. The basic task ofspatial planning is to plan sustainable territorialdevelopment as a general strategic frameworkfor general and sectoral policies. Therefore,spatial planning realises a control role as well,because it enables decision makers to view theresults and effectiveness of different policies inspecific space, as well as to foresee theirefficiency and necessary future adjustments(Adams, Alden, Harris, 2006)A succession of the European Uniondevelopmental documents were adopted, aswell as several Pan-European initiatives,representing a new generation of strategicdocuments. The largest contribution topromoting the role of spatial planning in theEuropean Union was provided by the documenton European Spatial Development Perspective- Towards Balanced and SustainableDevelopment of the Territory of the EuropeanUnion (ESDP, 1999). Starting from thefundamental goal of EU integration processesto achieve sustainable and balanceddevelopment of the European territory, themost important contribution of ESDP was toestablish the concept of balanced polycentricdevelopment, i.e. polycentric system of urbancores, staring with the positive experiences ofHolland and Germany, where this concept hasbeen applied for more than half a century. It isessentially an effort to restrain uncontrolledmetropolisation and find a counterbalance tothe market-initiated process of concentratingeconomic activities and population in centralEuropean regions. The concept of balancedpolycentric urban and regional developmenthas become one of the determinants of spatialplanning and it exerts a large influence onstrategies and policies at national and regionallevels of planning and administration (Alden,2006).The Territorial Agenda of the European Union -Towards a More Competitive and SustainableEurope of Diverse Regions (2007), representsa continuation and correction of ESDP in itsown right. The agenda retains all crucialelements of ESDP and introduces severalnewer tasks. Orientation towards improvingpolycentric development has been confirmedand the tasks have been defined in order tocontribute towards a more balanceddevelopment, balancing quality of life acrossthe population, sustainable use of resourcesand territorial capital of the region and entireEU. Strengthening regional identity and betterutilisation of potentials of the regionallydifferentiated EU territory was stressed as oneof the crucial challenges.What is significant is that the Territorial Agendaintroduced mandatory implementation of an
integrated strategic territorial approach
,i.e. implementation of integral planning andmanagement for all actors in EU, especiallylocal and regional actors, within limits set outat Pan-European and national levels. Theestablishment of the integral approach toguiding and managing development of theEuropean Union was also supported by therevised European Union strategy forsustainable development (EU SDS, 2006).The following were categorised as
territorialpriorities
in scope of the EU developmentprocess: (i) strengthening polycentricdevelopment and innovation throughnetworking urban regions and cities; (ii)establishing new forms of partnership andterritorial management in developing urban andrural areas, predominantly at the level offunctional urban areas; (iii) promoting regionalcompetition and innovation clusters with theaim of stimulating development andspecialisation of peripheral andunderdeveloped European regions; (iv)strengthening and spreading trans-Europeantransport corridors, improving technical(especially energy) infrastructure, anddecentralising services of public interest; (v)promoting Trans-European risk management,including climate change impacts and newforms of managing protection of areas etc.; (vi)strengthening environmental structures andcultural resources as development potential,especially in regions which lag behind indevelopment and in environmentally andculturally sensitive areas.In the analysis of crucial provisions of theEuropean documents, M. Vujoševi
ć
(2008)rightfully claims that all of them are relevant forsustainable territorial development in Serbia.He particularly stressed the significance andproblems in: implementing polycentricdevelopment; achieving equality in the
 
Maksin-Mi
ć
i
ć
, M. et al.:
Spatial and environmental planning of sustainable regional development in Serbia
 
spatium
 
41
 availability of infrastructure, knowledge andinnovation; strengthening the economic base,quality of the environment and infrastructure ofurban services; wise management in usingnatural and cultural heritage, promotingcooperation at regional, cross-border andtransnational levels etc. Some of the problemsand possibilities concerning implementation ofprovisions and concepts of Europeandocuments shall be indicated in this paper.The implementation of strategic documentsand establishment of sustainable territorialdevelopment is facing difficulties, partlybecause spatial planning is not among theUnion’s original jurisdictions, but rather fallsunder the jurisdiction of member states. ChiefEU policies are the basic problem, primarilythe Lisbon strategy/treaty, prioritizingmacroeconomic competitiveness over socialand environmental objectives. According tosome estimates, most basic European sectoralpolicies are aimed at achieving economiccompetitiveness (from transport to urbanpolicies) and therefore indirectly giveadvantage and contribute to the concentrationof economic and innovative activities in alimited number of metropolitan regions(Kunzmann, 2006).Although the implementation of documents onthe Union's territorial development is notobligatory, but they rather represent a guiding,strategic framework to coordinate variouspolicies, experiences in their implementationto date have been positive, primarily inimplementing new approaches and concepts.The implementation of these documents in theEU countries is based on the principle ofsubsidiarity and developing horizontal(intersectoral at the same level ofadministration) and vertical (between the levelsof administration - Union, transnational,national, regional and local levels)coordination. From the EU standpoint, mostimportant are coordination and cooperation attransnational and regional levels, because theyenable the resolution of the most importantissues of developing European territory -Trans-European transport systems,environmental protection, functional andeconomic connections between regions,cross-border areas etc.The ESDP document exerted a powerfulinfluence on Europeanisation of spatialplanning and planning methodology, whichadapted both to realising sustainabledevelopment and territorial cohesion andcompetitiveness. Different from traditionalland-use planning, spatial planning was moreoriented towards unifying the spatial dimensionof development with economic, social,environmental and sectoral policies. In a post-industrial information society, spatial planningis expected to represent a foundation forsustainable development policies and policiesthat contribute to or influence sustainableterritorial development. The basic reasons areas follows:
 
Cultural and landscape diversity ofEuropean space shall be of crucial interestfor the future economic development of theEU. The role of spatial planning andspatially relevant policies is to determineregionally differentiated values andresources and protect them fromuncontrolled economic development anduncontrolled and unsustainabledevelopment of infrastructure systems.
 
Spatial planning gathers solutions forproblems of regional development andpreserving regional identity, culture,tradition and quality of life of inhabitants.No other policy can comprehensively viewand guide all dimensions of sustainableterritorial development.
 
High-level discussions on spatialplanning in the EU shall influence theadaptation of European sectoral policies tothe Pan-European spatial framework andthe implementation of estimates ofterritorial influence, so as to enableguiding spatial implications of sectoralmeasures and activities on regions, urbanand rural settlements (Kunzmann, 2006).The cohesion policy of the European Union isparticularly targeted at regions, regionalpolicies and the role of regional developmentin reducing economic and social disparities,primarily in production, productivity andemployment, which were deepened by itsterritorial spread. At NUTS II level in 2005, theproportion of gross national product was 8:1between the most developed Londonmetropolitan and the least developed Europeanregion, Lithuania (Growing Regions, GrowingEurope, 2007).
Regional policy
of the European Union isfocused on implementing Lisbon strategy andthe EU Sustainable Development Strategy &tasks to increase productivity, employment andsustainable development of European regions.The second largest support from Europeanfunds for the period 2007 - 2013 is secured forregional development policies, with a priorityfor impoverished regions and overcomingregional disparities (Alden, 2007). Europeanregional policy was designed so that itsspecific results in improving social andeconomic cohesion contribute to reducing thegap between developed and undevelopedstates and regions. Special attention was paidto the scientific approach in regional policies.Experiences from various European regionsindicate that the contexts of regional planningand regional development are changingrapidly. Within the GRIDS project (Bestpractice guidelines for instruments of regionaldevelopment and spatial planning in enlargedEU) anbd INTERREG IIIC program, it wasperceived in several examples that traditionalregional policies did not provide expectedresults in view of more balanced developmentand competitiveness of regions.Discussions were held over the previous yearsabout new paradigms of regional developmentand new approaches to resolving problems ofregional disparity and competitiveness. Anentire spectrum of topics arose withintheoretical contemplations of regionaldevelopment - on regional competitiveness,social capital, knowledge-based economy,flexible regional specialisation etc. Varioustheories, concepts and models are beingquestioned, such as the central place theory(Christaller), growth poles (Perroux), core-periphery spatial and economic developmentmodel (Myrdal and Hirschman) etc. Theconcepts of balanced polycentric regionaldevelopment, nodal regions - functional-urbanregions - daily urban systems etc. weredeveloped on the basis of combining modifiedclassical theories and models. New conceptsand models are being researched, such aslearning regions (Cooke), intelligent urbanregions, regional innovation clusters etc.(ibid).The nodal region concept came intoprominence in
regional and spatialplanning
. Selecting nodal regions andplanned guidance of their development is oneof the most important premises in the processof rational organisation of space. Europeanfunctional-integration areas and multimodalcorridors that shall link big city centres moreintensively and contribute to the creation of anintegral polystructural urban system ofbalanced hierarchy and powerful horizontal(spatial) and vertical (functional) connectionshave been determined. One of the intendedmodels is also the model of Europeanmetropolitan regions - EMR, highly urbanized

You're Reading a Free Preview

Download
scribd
/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->