Welcome to Scribd, the world's digital library. Read, publish, and share books and documents. See more
Download
Standard view
Full view
of .
Save to My Library
Look up keyword
Like this
252Activity
0 of .
Results for:
No results containing your search query
P. 1
Compare and contrast between the Audio-Lingual Method and Communicative Language Teaching

Compare and contrast between the Audio-Lingual Method and Communicative Language Teaching

Ratings:

4.25

(4)
|Views: 51,522 |Likes:
Published by asif051402
Compare and contrast between the Audio-Lingual Method and Communicative Language Teaching on the basis of different issues related.
Compare and contrast between the Audio-Lingual Method and Communicative Language Teaching on the basis of different issues related.

More info:

Published by: asif051402 on Jul 16, 2009
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

Availability:

Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as DOC, PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd
See more
See less

05/11/2014

pdf

text

original

 
The
 
Audio-Lingual Method
, or the Army Method or also the New Key is a style of teaching used in teaching foreign languages. It is based on behaviorist theory, which professes that certain traits of living things, and in this case humans, could be trained through a system of reinforcement—correct use of a trait would receive positive feedback whileincorrect use of that trait would receive negative feedback.
Communicative Language Teaching
(CLT) is an approach to the teaching of secondandforeign languagesthat emphasizesinteractionas both the means and the ultimate goal of  learning alanguage. It is also referred to as “communicative approach to the teaching of foreign languages” or simply the “Communicative Approach”.The Audio-Lingual Method (ALM) arose as a direct result of the need for foreignlanguage proficiency in listening and speaking skills during and after World War II. It isclosely tied to  behaviorism, and thus madedrilling, repetition, and habit-formation central elements of instruction. Proponents of ALM felt that this emphasis on repetition necessitateda corollary emphasis on accuracy, claiming that continual repetition of errors would lead tothe fixed acquisition of incorrect structures and non-standard pronunciation.In the classroom, lessons were often organized by grammatical structure and presented through shortdialogs. Often, students listened repeatedly to recordings of conversations (for example, in thelanguage lab) and focused on accurately mimicking the pronunciation and grammatical structures in these dialogs. Example :“Teacher: There's a cup on the table ... repeatStudents: There's a cup on the tableTeacher: SpoonStudents: There's a spoon on the tableTeacher: Book Students: There's a book on the table.Teacher: On the chair Students: There's a book on the chair etc.”The origins of Communicative Language Teaching (CLT) are to be found in thechanges in the British language teaching tradition dating from the1960s. As an extension of the notional-functional syllabus, CLT also places great emphasis on helping students use thetarget language in a variety of contexts and places great emphasis on learning languagefunctions. Unlike the ALM, its primary focus is on helping learners create meaning rather than helping them develop perfectly grammatical structures or acquire native-like pronunciation. This means that successfully learning a foreign language is assessed in termsof how well learners have developed their communicative competence, which can loosely bedefined as their ability to apply knowledge of both formal and sociolinguistic aspects of alanguage with adequate proficiency to communicate. Now, we will compare and contrast between the Audio-Lingual Method and CommunicativeLanguage Teaching on the basis of different issues related.
 
Objectives:
Audio-lingual method:The development of oral proficiency in the language through carefully selectedvocabularies which form a general service list for the learner to use.ii)To make students able to use the target language communicatively andautomatically without stopping to think.Communicative Language Teaching:i)The main objective of CLT is to develop the communicative competence of the learners.ii) Learners are involved in the learning process so that language developsautomatically.All the basic four skills get equal emphasis.
 Principles:
Principles of Audio-lingual method-
a)Language is speech and not writing. This implies that the emphasis is on correctintonation.Listening and speaking should be taught before reading and writing. It should berealistic and situational from the start. The mastery of oral skills should precedereading and writing which will act as reinforcements.c)Language is a set of habit. Learning is controlled through behaviour.d)It teaches the language not about the language.Instructions are given in the target language.f)Language forms occur within a context.g)Students’ native language interferes as little as possible with the students’ attemptsto acquire the target language.h)Teaching is directed to provide students with a native-speaker-like model.i)Analogy provides a better foundation for language learning than analysis. j)Errors are carefully avoided because they lead to the formation of bad habits.k)Positive reinforcement helps the student to develop correct habits.l)Students are encouraged to learn to respond to both verbal and nonverbal stimuli.m)The teacher is regarded as an orchestra leader-conducting, guiding and controllingthe students’ behavior in the target language.n)Learning a foreign language is treated on par with the native language learning.o)A comparison between the native language and the target language is supposed tohelp teachers to find the areas with which their students probably experiencedifficulty: this is expected to help students to overcome the habit of the nativelanguage.
 
 p)Language is not seen separated from culture. Culture is the everyday behavior of  people who use the target language. One of the teachers’ responsibilities is to present information about that culture in context.q)Students are taken to be the imitators of the teacher’s model or the tapes.r)The dialogue is the chief means of presenting vocabulary, structures and it islearned through repetition and imitation.s)Mimicry, memorization and pattern drills are the practice techniques that areemphasized.t)Most of the interaction is between the teacher and the learner and it is imitated bythe learner.u)Listening and speaking are given priority in language teaching, and they precedereading and writing.v)Correct pronunciation, stress, rhythm and intonation are emphasized.w)The meanings of the words are derived in a linguistic and cultural context and notin isolation.x)Audio-visual aids are used to assist the students’ ability to form new languagehabits.
Principles of CLT-
a) Language as it is used in real context should be introduced. b) Students should be able to figure out the speaker’s or writer’s intentions.c) The target language is the vehicle for classroom communication.d) One function may have many different linguistic forms.e) Opportunities should be given to students to express their ideas and opinions.f) Errors are seen as the natural outcome of the development of communicationskills.g) Fluency is much more important than accuracy.h) Creating situations to promote communication is one of the teacher’sresponsibilities.i) The social context of the communicative events is essential in giving meaning tothe utterances. j) The teacher acts as an advisor during communicative activity, a facilitator of students’ learning, a manager of classroom activity, or a co-communicator.k) When communicating, a speaker has a choice about what to say and how to say it.

Activity (252)

You've already reviewed this. Edit your review.
1 hundred thousand reads
1 thousand reads
1 hundred thousand reads
1 hundred reads
need_information added this note
thank you for the upload. I'm writing an essay on these two methrial comes to be of help.ods and this mate
Colin Mitchell liked this
irusea90 liked this
Mohammed Beloua liked this
Shirin Amirzadeh liked this

You're Reading a Free Preview

Download
/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->