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SSN Leach

SSN Leach



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Published by AFLAC ............
SSN Leach
SSN Leach

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Published by: AFLAC ............ on Jul 17, 2009
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


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Saturated Saline & Nitric Acid
There are a number of leaches based upon salt
water but none have shown the kinetics thatSSN demonstrates. In one leach the oxidation potential is created by a combination of hydrochloric acid and ferric chloride; in an
other leach hydrochloric alone is used and in
the third electrolytic are employed to createmolecular chlorine. Pourbaix diagrams show
that each of these leaches will dissolve gold;
however, the diagrams will not show thekinetic behavior involved (speed of lixivia-tion). This behavior can only be demonstratedby testing and SSN wins hands down. Wewill look into the behavior of this uniqueleach one aspect at a time.chemical supply house. For laboratory experiments you will probably use the nitricacid provided from a scientific supply, whichis quite expensive compared to the side of quantity purchase. For example one bottle of nitric acid (71bs) is, at todays cost, $64 and if you bought a 55gal drum the same 71bs of acid would cost only $2.10. Salt may be
bought at $ 1.10 per 501b bag at the hardware
store, and $25 per ton in truck load lots. Tomake it simple: check on the commercialprices in your locale when you calculateleach cost for production runs, In our area itcould be as low as $0.07 per gallon.
SSN is based upon saturated salt water which
means water with every bit of salt that it willdissolve at normal temperature and pressure.The easiest way to create saturated brine
water is to place approximately 3 lbs of rock 
salt per gallon of water in a vessel and let itdissolve. It helps to stir it occasionally. Justuse ordinary tap water for this. Decant thebrine water from any remaining salt (filter if there is suspended trash from the rock salt).This is the prime liquor and it is ready to go.
You will need
rock salt--
not table salt, but
rock salt like you use for water softeners or tc
clear ice from the highway. You will neecfull strength
nitric acid 
(65-70%). Both of these may be purchased from an industrial
apparently not accidental for we repeated the
series and the results were the same.
It is now time to choose a ratio of nitric acid
to saturated brine water. The low end of thereactions is 20 saturated salt water (SS) to 1nitric acid (N). [SSN=20:1]. At the top endwe have a ratio of 7 SS to 1 N [SSN=7:1].The top was determined by tests that show
when SSN=6:1 the amount of gold dissolved
is reduced. In other words there is a point atwhich the chemistry turns negative.When running these tests we attempted to
limit the variables to one and in the following
case that variable was acid ratio, A gold plate
that was 750 fine and an exposed surface area
of 2 square centimeters was used. The 18Kgold behaves more like a nugget than pure
gold and the set amount of surface defines the
other dimension. Temperature was held con
stant at 31.1° C (88° F)
The left hand column of the graph representsthe milligrams of gold per square centimeter
of gold surface per hour, at 31.1 * C. Across
the bottom is the ratio on nitric acid to Brine.Starting at SSN=7:1 on the left and ending
with SSN =1:19 on the right. One cannot help
but note the sudden rise between 1:16 and1:13 and again between 1:10 and 1:7. This isThis graph shows the reaction of SSN withrespect to heat. The left column of figuresrepresents milligrams of gold leached from
one square centimeter, per hour of exposure.
Reading across the bottom of the graph each
number is equivalent to a ten degree centigrade increase in working temperature. Thegraph covers 10° C to 90° C. Eighty degreesCentigrade (176° F) is the highest practicaltemperature due to volatilization of fluids.The upper arc represents SSN at 7:1 and thelower arc equals SSN at 20:1. The increasedchemical activity is a geometric progressionby two for each unit of 11 to 13 degrees C.
Molality m Pressure pmol / kg bar
N I.440E+00 N 1.OOOE+00Na 6.000E+00 Na I.OOOE+00
Cl 6.O00E+0O CI 1OOOE+00
Pourbaix Diagrams (EpH Diagrams) are an excellent
means of visualizing the what, where, and when of 
chemical reactions. First it would be advantageous to
explain a few things for those readers who are notfamiliar with these diagrams.Down the Left side you will see the Eh listed as avoltage. Chemical species by chemical species,
element by element; these are the same as you would
find in the electromotive series as listed in CRC, orsome other reference book. Usually the diagram is
drawn showing from +2.00 to -2.00 volts but we wish
to have a clear view of the area of interest so we ask 
the computer to draw only that area above 0.00 volts.
Across the bottom pH is listed and again we havemade a request that instead of the traditional 0 to 14
listing we required an extra two molar on the acid side
and only pH 8 on the alkaline side. The minus
to the left of 0 represent one mole of acid per number,
in other words one mole of acid would represent a pH
of 0,01 and a second mole would take the pH to -1.0.
The suffix following each chemical species denotes its
state of existence. When there is no parenthetic tetter
the species is a solid crystal. Inmost EpH diagramsthe following designations are used: (a) aqueous, (1)liquid {such as mercury], (g) gas, (none) solid.
Across the top the first element listed is the element
of interest and the diagram is used to show itsbehavior under the chemical, physical and thermalsituation as defined by the temperature (at the topright) and pressure (at the bottom). By performing
literally millions of calculations the diagram emergesand we can see the status of (in this case) chlorine (as
combined for SSN) at any pH and Eh combination.We have darkened the small area at the upper left sothat cationic chlorine will not be overlooked.

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