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Database Normalization

Database Normalization



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Published by Arnav Guddu
Database Normalization
Database Normalization

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Categories:Types, Research, Science
Published by: Arnav Guddu on Jul 17, 2009
Copyright:Traditional Copyright: All rights reserved


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Constraints: There are 2 types of constraints:1)Defines the permitted values, the attributes can have.2)Defines the relationship between the attribute.Functional Dependency (FD): It is denoted by
. FD X
Y means that Xuniquely determines Y, where X and Y are simple or composite attributes. The dependency from X to Y is said to be there if application has thefollowing:If T1 and T2 are 2 tuples with some values X then value for Y must also besame in T1 and T2 i.e., relationship between X and Y is independent of otherattributes which must be present in the table. In simple words, for a given Xthere is always a single value of Y.For example,
A Street of a City
Pin Code: A Street of a city has a uniquepin code however the reverse need not be true.
AUTHOR: Given an ISBN number, one can findthe Title and name of the Author of the book. Implications and Covers: The application can call for some functionaldependencies which may imply additional functional dependencies.If F is the set of FDs then we define closure of F denoted as F+ to be set of allpossible FDs, which is implied by F. To find F+, given F, we have to find out the interface rules for the FD’s whichare implied by F. The inference rules are very important for good databasedesign for the following reasons:
Given F, one may like to determine whether X
 Y is implied or not.
For computing the closure of F+ of F.
PageWritten By Arnav MukhopadhyayEMAIL:ARNAV.MUKHOPADHYAY@smude.edu.in 
Given F we may want to remove those FDs, which are redundant in F. AFD is redundant if it is implied by another FD in F.While designing database schema:
Find minimal cover of “G” of F.By finding minimal cover, G does not contain any redundant FDs(that is, G+ will be same as F+). By computing minimal cover G of F, we can ensure that DBMS will enforce the constraints, whichautomatically enforces the constraints implied by G.Inference rules for FDs:Inference rules are known as Armstrong’s Axioms, are published byArmstrong. These properties are as given below:
Reflexive property: X
Y is TRUE, if Y is a SUBSET of X.
Augmentation property: If X
Y is TRUE, then XZ
YZ is also TRUE.
 Transitivity property: If X
Y and Y
Z are TRUE, then X
Z isimplied.
Union property: If X
Y and X
Z are TRUE, then X
YZ is also TRUE. This property indicates that if Right Hand Side of FD containsmany attributes then, FD exists for each of them.
Decomposition property: If X
Y is implied and Z is a SUBSET of Y,the X
Z is implied. This property is the Reverse of Union property.
Pseudo transitivity property: If X
Y and WY
Z are given, thenXW
Z is TRUE.Example: Consider a college having a table STUDY with COURSE, TEACHER, ROOM NO and DEPARTMENT as attributes.STUDY (COURSE, TEACHER, ROOMNO, DEPT) here identify few FDsnamely:
Room Number
PageWritten By Arnav MukhopadhyayEMAIL:ARNAV.MUKHOPADHYAY@smude.edu.in
Additional FDs can be derived from above by using Inferenceproperties:
By reflexivity: (Course, Teacher)
By Augmentation: (Course, Room Number)
(Teacher, RoomNumber)
By Transitivity: Course
By Union: Course
(Teacher, Room Number) The main axioms of Armstrong are sound and complete, and aredefined as:
Soundness property: If X
Y can be inferred from F using theabove axioms, the X
Y will be TRUE in any relation in which Fholds.
Completeness property: If X
Y cannot be inferred from F and Fholds in relation R, then X
Y will not be TRUE in relation R.
PageWritten By Arnav MukhopadhyayEMAIL:ARNAV.MUKHOPADHYAY@smude.edu.in

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