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7 Noise Performance of Various Modulation Scheme

7 Noise Performance of Various Modulation Scheme

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Published by Manoj M Rabbalagi
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Published by: Manoj M Rabbalagi on Oct 08, 2013
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 7.1
CHAPTER 7 
Noise Performance of Various ModulationSchemes 
7.1 Introduction 
The process of (electronic) communication becomes quite challengingbecause of the unwanted electrical signals in a communications system. Theseundesirable signals, usually termed as
noise
, are random in nature and interferewith the message signals. The receiver input, in general, consists of (message)signal plus noise, possibly with comparable power levels. The purpose of thereceiver is to produce the desired signal with a
signal-to-noise ratio
that is abovea specified value.In this chapter, we will analyze the noise performance of the modulationschemes discussed in chapters 4 to 6. The results of our analysis will show that,under certain conditions, FM is superior to the linear modulation schemes incombating noise and PCM can provide better signal-to-noise ratio at the receiver output than FM. The trade-offs involved in achieving the superior performancefrom FM and PCM will be discussed.We shall begin our study with the noise performance of various CWmodulations schemes. In this context, it is the performance of the detector (demodulator) that would be emphasized. We shall first develop a suitablereceiver model in which the role of the demodulator is the most important one.
 
 7.2
7.2 Receiver Model and Figure of Merit: Linear Modulation 
7.2.1 Receiver model 
Consider the superheterodyne receiver shown in Fig. 4.75. To study thenoise performance we shall make use of simplified model shown in Fig. 7.1.Here,
( )
eq
H
is the equivalent IF filter which actually represents the cascadefiltering characteristic of the RF, mixer and IF sections of Fig. 4.75.
( )
s t
is thedesired modulated carrier and
( )
w t
represents a sample function of the whiteGaussian noise process with the two sided spectral density of 
N
0
2
. We treat
( )
eq
H
to be an ideal narrowband, bandpass filter, with a passband between
c
f W
to
c
f W
+
for the double sideband modulation schemes. For the case of SSB, we take the filter passband either between
c
f W
and
c
(LSB) or 
c
and
c
f W
+
(USB). (The transmission bandwidth
T
B
is
W
2
for the double sidebandmodulation schemes whereas it is
W
for the case of SSB). Also, in the presentcontext,
c
represents the carrier frequency measured at the mixer output; that is
c IF
f
=
.Fig. 7.1: Receiver model (linear modulation)
 
 7.3The input to the detector is
( ) ( ) ( )
x t s t n t
= +
, where
( )
n t
is the samplefunction of a bandlimited (narrowband) white noise process
( )
N t
with the power spectral density
( )
N
NS
0
2
=
over the passband of 
( )
eq
H
. (As
( )
eq
H
istreated as a narrowband filter,
( )
n t
represents the sample function of anarrowband noise process.)
7.2.2 Figure-of-merit
The performance of analog communication systems are measured interms of Signal-to-Noise Ratio
( )
SNR
. The
SNR
measure is meaningful andunambiguous provided the signal and noise are additive at the point of measurement. We shall define two
( )
SNR
quantities, namely, (i)
( )
SNR
0
and(ii)
( )
SNR
.The output signal-to-noise ratio is defined as,
( )
SNR
0
 Averagepowerofthemessageatreceiveroutput Averagenoisepoweratthereceiveroutput
=
(7.1)The reference signal-to-noise ratio is defined as,
( )
SNR
 Averagepowerofthemodulatedmessagesignalatreceiverinput Averagenoisepowerinthemessagebandwidthatreceiverinput
=
(7.2)The quantity,
( )
SNR
can be viewed as the output signal-to-noise ratio whichresults from baseband or direct transmission of the message without anymodulation as shown in Fig. 7.2. Here,
( )
m t
is the baseband message signalwith the same power as the modulated wave. For the purpose of comparingdifferent modulation systems, we use the Figure-of-Merit
( )
FOM
defined as,

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