increased. A simple method is the blending of biodieselwith mineral diesel to get a lower CFPP value.Recently, attempts were made to use additives, e.g. Visco-plex 10-305
. In this case biodiesel based on a mix-ture of 80% rapeseed oil and 16% pork lard methyl estershowed a reduction of CFPP value of 7 K. Although thecrystals produced with these additives are small enoughto fulﬁl the CFPP standard, they are not always smallenough to pass modern fuel ﬁlters. For this and other rea-sons Viscoplex 10-305 is no more available commercially.
Aim of this work is the winterization of biodiesel basedon waste cooking oil, which is less expensive than biodieselbased on rapeseed oil. Until now, no method and no addi-tives are known to solve this problem in an economic way.Our new method does not use additives or blends andemploys a pure physical method. The method is based onwinterization with micro system technology using microheat exchangersdeveloped by the Karlsruhe ResearchCenter.
2. Experimental procedures
All experiments were done with samples based on wastecooking oil methyl ester (WME). They were taken directlyafter production from a biodiesel plant
and consumedwithin one month.
For analyzing the chemical composition of biodieselduring the winterization process we used a gas chromato-graph (Agilent 6850 Series II, Injector Agilent 7683) witha DB-Wax column (length: 30 m) and a FID at 573 K.Helium was used as carrier gas with a throughput of 64 ml min
. Furthermore H
with 30 ml min
and airwith 400 ml min
were employed. The temperature pro-gram started at 403 K. This temperature was hold for1 min and then heated up with a rate of 5 K min
to atemperature of 513 K. This temperature was hold for10 min for the rest of the chromatogram. The calibrationof this column was done with three standard samples Rot-ichrom ME11, ME19 and FO7
containing all fatty acidmethyl esters, we needed. The temperature program wasoptimized to get well separated peaks. The integrated peaksof all measured compounds were linear as a function of concentration. The reproducibility and accuracy of thesemeasurements amount ±0.1%.Fig. 1shows a typical chro-matogram of our biodiesel sample. The relevant com-pounds are shown inTable 1together with the retentiontimes.
2.3. Preliminary investigations
The simplest idea for winterization is to cool down bio-diesel slowly in order to precipitate high melting saturatedfatty acid methyl esters. This was done ﬁrst with a double-
Fig. 1. Gas chromatogram of biodiesel based on waste cooking oil, seeTable 1for more details.
RohMax Additives GmbH, Kirschenallee, 64293 Darmstadt,Germany.
Biowerk Sohland GmbH, Saxony, Germany.
Carl-Roth GmbH, Karlsruhe, Germany.
S. Kerschbaum et al./Fuel 87 (2008) 2590–2597