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Compressor Anti-Surge Control

Compressor Anti-Surge Control

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Published by DINESH

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Published by: DINESH on Jul 18, 2009
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05/11/2014

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19738342.docPage 1 of 9
ANTI-SURGE CONTROL AND SURGE PROTECTION
1General
This specification defines the technical requirements for Anti-surge Control and Surge Protection for LP/HPMR(K-91420/30), Propane(K-91140) and End Flash(K-91450) compressors for the MLNG TIGA project.As indicated on the PEFS, dedicated anti-surge control and safeguarding systems shall be provided byCompressor Controls Corporation (CCC), Series 4. These systems shall be provided as complete packagesincluding engineering, hardware, and software supply, configuration wiring, testing, installation andcommissioning.
1.1
AbbreviationsASCAnti Surge ControlCCCCompressor Controls CorporationDCSDistributed Control System.EDRSEquipment Data Requisition SheetEMCElectromagnetic CompatibilityENMCElectrical Network Monitoring and ControlEPCCEngineering Procurement Construction and CommissioningFARField Auxiliary RoomGTGas TurbineIPSInstrumented Protective SystemsMCRMain Control Room.MCRBMain Control Room BasementMDFMain Distribution Frame (Field Cable Marshalling Cabinets)MRMixed RefrigerantMTBFMean Time Between FailurePCSProcess Control SystemPCSIProcess Control System IntegratoRDASRotating equipment Data Acquisition SystemSDSurge DetectionUPSUninterruptable Power SupplyVSDSVariable Speed Drive
2FUNCTIONAL REQUIREMENTS2.1
General Control ObjectivesVendor's control system shall meet the following control objectives:(a)Provide control of the overall compressor system to maximize efficiency whilst accuratelymeeting process control objective requirements, as specified in the process controldescriptions.(b)Protect each stage of the compressor from surge-induced compressor damage and processupsets with minimum recycle. Minimize process upsets resulting from recycle control.(c)Minimize adverse interactions between the above control functions.(d)Provide uninterrupted control in the event of hardware failures.
Berry’s Commissioning Handbook 
 
19738342.docPage 2 of 9
(e)Provide integration with the Distributed Control System (DCS) and with the Rotatingequipment Data Acquisition System. (RDAS)Anti-surge Controllers shall calculate compressor operating point deviations in a manner that is invariable tochange in inlet conditions, such as pressure, temperature, gas composition, compressor polytropic efficiency,rotational speed and inlet guide vanes position for the axial compressor.The preferred method of meeting this requirement is to compute the distance between the operating point andincipient surge limit using an equation based on the specific compressor curves, for ratio of polytropic headto suction volumetric flow. The algorithms used shall be based upon either Shell Report MF 85-0260, thecompressor vendor's requirements or the system vendor's proven technology.Each anti-surge control module will manipulate a recycle valve to maintain an adequate, but not excessive,margin of safety between its compressor stages operating point and surge limit, as described below.Anti-surge control modules shall provide optional limiting control of both discharge and suction pressure,consistent with the primary goal of preventing surge.The anti-surge control module shall have three protection shields against surge.(f)The first shield shall be a control module that opens the recycle valve in case the operating point crosses the configured control line. The control line shall have a margin to surgethat is dependent on the speed at which the operating point is moving towards surge.(g)The second protection line shall be located between the surge limit line and the surge controlline. When the operating point of the compressor crosses this line, the anti-surge controlmodule shall increase its output with an increment in order to avoid surge in the compressor.The size of this increment shall be dependent on the speed at which the operating point ismoving towards surge. The increment addition to the output of the anti-surge control modulewill decay at a configurable rate.(h)The third protection line shall be located to the left of the surge limit line. When the operating point of the compressor crosses to the left of this line, the control module will assume surge inthe compressor and increase the initial margins of the first two shields with some pre-determined, configurable level. In addition, the anti-surge control module shall include thecapability of detecting actual surge by measuring and recognizing a pre-defined surgesignature. When a pre-defined number of surges are detected the compressor shall be trippedvia the IPS.The anti-surge control module shall be capable of recognizing transmitter failures. In case such an error isdetected, the anti-surge control module will switch to a more conservative control algorithm and alarm this tothe operator. The anti-surge control module shall be able to differentiate between a flow transmitter failureand a actual surge incident, taking appropriate action based on the findings.For compressor protection (i.e. to enable the Compressor to be shutdown by the plant IPS after multiplesurges or after a suitable delay), the Anti-surge Controller shall incorporate a separate surge detector which provides contact output (minimum 300 msec duration) to the IPS. Surge detection shall be based on a definedalgorithmProvisions must also be made for recording and displaying the maximum observed rate of change for each of those variables as an aid to basing these thresholds on the results of a surge test on the given machine.Anti-surge Controller shall exchange information with all other Anti-surge Controllers regulating the samecompressor in order to implement appropriate feed-forward control responses that minimize loop interactionsand maintain the quality of surge protection.The Anti-surge Controller shall incorporate features that fully open the recycle valve, by IPS, when thecompressor is shut down. These states shall be selected on the basis of binary signal inputs and/or thecompressor's rotational speed, flow rate and suction pressure.
Berry’s Commissioning Handbook 
 
19738342.docPage 3 of 9
Provisions for manual control of the recycle valves shall be included.
3HARDWARE REQUIREMENTS
This section provides the hardware requirements for anti-surge applications which are to be implementeddedicated systems: CCC Series 4. Other anti-surge control and surge protection applications will beimplemented in the plant DCS and IPS.The anti-surge control and safeguarding system shall comprise one redundant anti-surge control module for each compressor stage.They shall be configured such that failure of either (internal or transmitter input signal) shall automaticallytransfer both analogue and binary output functions and connections to the healthy unit. This status shall bealarmed and maintained until the failed unit is replaced and the system is manually reset.Independent and separate Flow, Pressure and Temperature transmitter signals shall be connected to the primary (for control) and secondary (for safeguarding) units.The hardware / software shall be capable of providing full functionality during various process operatingconditions i.e:- start up- steady stateThe Anti-surge Controller units shall be arranged in redundant configuration such that failure of a single unitwill not cause any upset to compression operation. Deviation calculations between the controllers shall be presented to the DCS / RDAS.On-line replacement of a failed unit or input transmitter shall be possible without causing any process upset, .The anti-surge control modules shall be capable of scanning all inputs, executing control algorithms andupdating all outputs at least every (vendor to advise) milliseconds.The control modules shall utilize common hardware to simplify maintenance and reduce spare partrequirements.Control modules shall provide filtered analog input channels for obtaining process data.Control modules shall accept discrete input signals for triggering startup/shutdown/ purge logic idle 1, idle 2,rated, etc.Control modules shall provide output circuits which can be assigned for signaling various control module'sor process status conditions.The turbomachinery control system shall be capable of working in a fault tolerant configuration withautomatic and bumpless transfer between common control functions.Control modules shall be capable of transforming their output signal to compensate for non-linear finalcontrol element characteristics (i.e., quick-opening or equal-percentage control valves or valve hysteresis).Control modules shall utilize serial communication for exchanging information with each other and other 
Berry’s Commissioning Handbook 

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