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Tuning Control Loops

Tuning Control Loops

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Tuning Control LoopsPage 1 of 7
Tuning Control Loops
Table of Contents
TUNING CONTROL LOOPS ...................................................................................................1TUNING CONSTANTS ....................................................................................................1PROPORTIONAL BAND (K) .......................................................................................1GAIN (K) CALCULATION ..........................................................................................1INTEGRAL or RESET (T1) ..........................................................................................2DERIVATIVE (T2) .........................................................................................................2TUNING .............................................................................................................................2ADJUST PROPORTIONAL BAND ..............................................................................2ADJUST RESET (INTEGRAL) ACTION ....................................................................2ADJUST DERIVATIVE ACTION (RATE) ...................................................................3TUNING CONTROLLERS ...................................................................................................3GENERAL RULES FOR COMMON LOOPS ..................................................................3FLOW .............................................................................................................................3LEVEL ...........................................................................................................................3LIQUID PRESSURE .....................................................................................................4GAS PRESSURE ...........................................................................................................4TEMPERATURE, VAPOR PRESSURE, AND COMPOSITION .................................4CLASSICAL CONTROLLER TUNING METHOD ....................................................5CASCADE AND OTHER INTERACTING CONTROL LOOPS ................................5DEFAULT CONTROLLER TUNING PARAMETERS ....................................................6CONTROL LOOP SCAN RATES .................................................................................6PID ALGORITHM DEFAULT TUNING CONSTANTS ..............................................6
TUNING CONTROL LOOPS
TUNING CONSTANTSPROPORTIONAL BAND (K)
If Proportional Band is 100%, each percent of change at the input to the controller will produce the same percent of change at the controller's output.
If a Proportional Band is less than 100%, each percent change of input signal to thecontroller will produce a greater percent of change at the controller's output.
If a Proportional Band is larger than 100%, each percent change in input signal to thecontroller will produce a smaller percent of change at the controller's output.
The Proportional Band that is selected for a particular operating situation determineshow much corrective signal the controller can produce for each percent of change inthe variable controlled by the controller.
The controller's output signal determines the amount of movement that will be produced at the control valve.
GAIN (K) CALCULATION
Ratio of entire span of measurement to percent span being used as Proportional Band.GAIN = 100% (the entire span of measurement)% of span being used as a proportional band
Berry’s Commissioning Handbook 
 
Tuning Control LoopsPage 2 of 7Assume50% proportional band, PB = PROPORTIONAL BANDGAIN =100% (span)50% (PB)GAIN =2 Honeywell uses letter “K" to represent GAIN, therefore K =2.
INTEGRAL
OR 
RESET (T1)
Integral action repeats the proportional controllers initial corrective signal until thereis no difference between the PV and Setpoint.
Integral ( T1 ) is expressed in "Minutes per Repeat"
DERIVATIVE (T2)
Changes the output of a controller in proportion to the "RATE" or "SPEED" at whichthe controlled variable is moving towards or away from the setpoint.
Derivative action is expressed in minutes.
Represents the time that the proportional plus derivative will take to reach a certainlevel of output, in advance of the time proportional action alone would produce thesame output.i.e: When derivative is applied to a two mode controller ( PI ), to make it a three modecontroller ( PID ), it's action consists of decreasing the number of repeats per minute requiredto drive the error back to setpoint.
TUNINGADJUST PROPORTIONAL BAND
Always tune proportional band with very little reset action. That is, for instance with a speedcontrol loop, always set the reset (integral) adjustment at, say twenty or thirty seconds or more before adjusting the proportional band.Then, adjust the proportional band to a smaller value (higher gain) until cycling or instability begins.EXAMPLE: Start with 40% proportional band (a gain of 2.5); then halve the proportional band to 20% (a gain of 5); then halve the proportional band to 10% (a gain of 10); etc.When cycling just begins, increase the proportional band by 50 percent. That is, from 10% to15%; from 18% to 24%; etc. Cycling should stop. The proportional band adjustment shouldnow be properly set and should be left at this value.
ADJUST RESET (INTEGRAL) ACTION
This is done by reducing the time value (in seconds). Say the reset is at twenty seconds. Thenreduce the reset to ten seconds; then reduce the reset to five seconds; then reduce the reset totwo seconds; etc. When cycling or instability begins, increase the reset adjustment by 50%.
Berry’s Commissioning Handbook 
 
Tuning Control LoopsPage 3 of 7Example: If cycling is observed at two seconds, increase the reset to three seconds. If cyclingis observed at 8 seconds, increase the reset to 12 seconds, etc. The reset action should now be properly adjusted and should be left at this value.
ADJUST DERIVATIVE ACTION (RATE)
If a derivative adjustment is felt necessary, adjust the derivative action by beginning at asetting of one second, then two, then three, until improvement is observed and seems to beoptimal. Normally, derivative action is not needed and does not help the situation.
TUNING CONTROLLERS
Since there are a very large number of combinations of the two or sometimes three, "knobs" provided for controller tuning, many methods have been developed over the years to aid intheir proper adjustment. A few require upsetting the process to some extent, often anunacceptable practice in real life. These notes are intended to provide a few simple rules touse in tuningcontrollers which will minimize upsets and still get the job done.
THE CONTROLLER MUST BE ADJUSTED TO BALANCE THE PROCESS
.If the process is fast to respond (i.e. a flow loop), then the controller must be tuned fast too.Fast or slow for a controller refers to integral (or reset). NOT PROPORTIONAL BAND (or gain).Do not confuse these actions or grief will be your constant companion during your controller tuning efforts. If the process is slow (i.e. temperature control of a tray part way up adistillation column), then the controller must be tuned slow TO MATCH THE PROCESS. If you do not have a feel for the process characteristics or cannot find someone to enlightenyou, leave controller tuning to someone else who can get the needed information.
GENERAL RULES FOR COMMON LOOPSFLOW
Usually, at least half of the control loops in a plant are flow loops. Set integral (I) at 0.1minutes. Adjust the proportional band so that the measurement is not too noisy, usually about300% although an occasional poor meter run installation may require as much as 1000%. Aloop where a valve positioner has been used will require a proportional band setting two tothree times larger than for a loop without a positioner. Slow moving or sticky control valvesmay require 0.2 or 0.3 minutes but are rare exceptions. If these settings do not work, inspectthe valve and orifice installation to find the, problem. Fix the problem. Do not adjust thecontroller to some ridiculous setting such as a 10 minute reset time. Use the controller inmanual or a hand valve if you think a 10 minute reset time is necessary.IMPORTANT NOTE: No controller will work when the valve is almost closed or almostwide open. Don't attempt tuning under these conditions. Have the operator open or close a bypass (if one exists) or wait until process conditions change enough to get the valve back within its operating range (from 5 to 95% of travel as extreme limits with 10 to 90% as asafer range). Never use derivative action in a flow loop.
LEVEL
Berry’s Commissioning Handbook 

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