Tuning Control LoopsPage 3 of 7Example: If cycling is observed at two seconds, increase the reset to three seconds. If cyclingis observed at 8 seconds, increase the reset to 12 seconds, etc. The reset action should now be properly adjusted and should be left at this value.
ADJUST DERIVATIVE ACTION (RATE)
If a derivative adjustment is felt necessary, adjust the derivative action by beginning at asetting of one second, then two, then three, until improvement is observed and seems to beoptimal. Normally, derivative action is not needed and does not help the situation.
Since there are a very large number of combinations of the two or sometimes three, "knobs" provided for controller tuning, many methods have been developed over the years to aid intheir proper adjustment. A few require upsetting the process to some extent, often anunacceptable practice in real life. These notes are intended to provide a few simple rules touse in tuningcontrollers which will minimize upsets and still get the job done.
THE CONTROLLER MUST BE ADJUSTED TO BALANCE THE PROCESS
.If the process is fast to respond (i.e. a flow loop), then the controller must be tuned fast too.Fast or slow for a controller refers to integral (or reset). NOT PROPORTIONAL BAND (or gain).Do not confuse these actions or grief will be your constant companion during your controller tuning efforts. If the process is slow (i.e. temperature control of a tray part way up adistillation column), then the controller must be tuned slow TO MATCH THE PROCESS. If you do not have a feel for the process characteristics or cannot find someone to enlightenyou, leave controller tuning to someone else who can get the needed information.
GENERAL RULES FOR COMMON LOOPSFLOW
Usually, at least half of the control loops in a plant are flow loops. Set integral (I) at 0.1minutes. Adjust the proportional band so that the measurement is not too noisy, usually about300% although an occasional poor meter run installation may require as much as 1000%. Aloop where a valve positioner has been used will require a proportional band setting two tothree times larger than for a loop without a positioner. Slow moving or sticky control valvesmay require 0.2 or 0.3 minutes but are rare exceptions. If these settings do not work, inspectthe valve and orifice installation to find the, problem. Fix the problem. Do not adjust thecontroller to some ridiculous setting such as a 10 minute reset time. Use the controller inmanual or a hand valve if you think a 10 minute reset time is necessary.IMPORTANT NOTE: No controller will work when the valve is almost closed or almostwide open. Don't attempt tuning under these conditions. Have the operator open or close a bypass (if one exists) or wait until process conditions change enough to get the valve back within its operating range (from 5 to 95% of travel as extreme limits with 10 to 90% as asafer range). Never use derivative action in a flow loop.
Berry’s Commissioning Handbook