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Control Valves and Tuning

Control Valves and Tuning

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CONTROL VALVES AND TUNING
Page 1 of 13
Control Valves and Tuning
Table of Contents
Control Valves AND TUNING ........................................................................................................1Control Valves AND TUNING ........................................................................................................2RELATIONSHIP OF MAJOR COMPONENTS .........................................................................2Control Valve Bodies ................................................................................................................2Control - Valve Actuators ...........................................................................................................2Discussion of Flow Characteristics and Valve Selection ..........................................................2QUICK - OPENING ..............................................................................................................2LINEAR FLOW ...................................................................................................................2EQUAL - PERCENTAGE .....................................................................................................3CRITICAL PRESSURE DROP ...........................................................................................3SIZING BY CALCULATION .............................................................................................3AERODYNAMIC NOISE PREDICTION ..........................................................................4LIQUID SERVICE ..................................................................................................................4CAVITATION ......................................................................................................................4FLASHING ..........................................................................................................................5TUNING CONTROL LOOPS .....................................................................................................6TUNING CONSTANTS ..........................................................................................................6PROPORTIONAL BAND (K) .............................................................................................6GAIN (K) CALCULATION ................................................................................................6INTEGRAL or RESET (T1) ................................................................................................6DERIVATIVE (T2) ..............................................................................................................6TUNING ..................................................................................................................................7ADJUST PROPORTIONAL BAND ....................................................................................7ADJUST RESET (INTEGRAL) ACTION ..........................................................................7ADJUST DERIVATIVE ACTION (RATE) .........................................................................7FLOW CHARACTERISTICS .................................................................................................8TUNING CONTROLLERS .........................................................................................................9GENERAL RULES FOR COMMON LOOPS ........................................................................9FLOW ..................................................................................................................................9LEVEL .................................................................................................................................9LIQUID PRESSURE .........................................................................................................10GAS PRESSURE ...............................................................................................................10TEMPERATURE, VAPOR PRESSURE, AND COMPOSITION ....................................10CLASSICAL CONTROLLER TUNING METHOD ........................................................11CASCADE AND OTHER INTERACTING CONTROL LOOPS ....................................11DEFAULT CONTROLLER TUNING PARAMETERS ........................................................11CONTROL LOOP SCAN RATES .....................................................................................12PID ALGORITHM DEFAULT TUNING CONSTANTS ..................................................13
Berry’s Commissioning Handbook 
 
CONTROL VALVES AND TUNING
Page 2 of 13
CONTROL VALVES AND TUNING
Selecting the proper control valve for each application involves many factors. The valve bodydesign, actuator, style, and plug characteristic are critical items for selection. Proper valve sizingis necessary for accurate, efficient, economical process control.In areas where personnel will be affected, noise prediction and control becomes a significantfactor.
RELATIONSHIP OF MAJOR COMPONENTS
CONTROL VALVE BODIES
The rate of fluid flow varies as the position of the valve plug is changed by force from theactuator. Therefore, the valve body must permit actuator thrust transmission, resist chemical and physical effects of the process, and provide the appropriate end connections to mate with theadjacent piping; it must do all of this without external leakage. Most valve body designs are of theglobe style, but other configurations such as ball and butterfly styles are available. Final selectiondepends upon detailed review of the engineering application.
CONTROL-VALVE ACTUATORS
Pneumatically operated control-valve actuators are the most popular type in use, but electric,hydraulic, and manual actuators are also widely used. The spring and diaphragm pneumaticactuator is commonly specified, due to its dependability and its simplicity of design. Pneumaticallyoperated piston actuators provide integral positioner capability and high stem-force output for demanding service conditions.
DISCUSSION OF FLOW CHARACTERISTICS AND VALVE SELECTION
The flow characteristic of a control valve is the relationship between the flow rate through thevalve and the valve travel as the travel is varied from 0 to 100 percent. "Inherent flowcharacteristic" refers to the characteristic observed during flow with a constant pressure dropacross the valve. "Installed flow characteristic" refers to the characteristic obtained in servicewhen the pressure drop varies with flow and other changes in the system.
QUICK-OPENING
The quick-opening flow characteristic provides for maximum change in flow rate at low valvetravel with a fairly linear relationship. Additional increases in valve travel give sharply reducedchanges in flow rate. When the valve plug nears the wide-open position, the change in flow rateapproaches zero. In a control valve, the quick-opening valve plug is used primarily for on-off service; however, it is also suitable for many applications where a linear valve plug wouldnormally be specified.
LINEAR FLOW
Berry’s Commissioning Handbook 
 
CONTROL VALVES AND TUNING
Page 3 of 13The linear flow-characteristic curve shows that the flow rate is directly proportional to the valvetravel. This proportional relationship produces a characteristic with a constant slope so that withconstant pressure drop (∆P), the valve gain will be the same at all flows. (Valve gain is the ratio of an incremental change in flow rate to an incremental change in valve plug position. Gain is a func-tion of valve size and configuration, system operating conditions and valve plug characteristic.)The linear-valve plug is commonly specified for liquid level control and for certain flow controlapplications requiring constant gain.
EQUAL-PERCENTAGE
In the equal-percentage flow characteristic, equal increments of valve travel produce equal percentage changes in the existing flow. The change in flow rate is always proportional to theflow rate just before the change in position is made for a valve plug, disc, or ball position. Whenthe valve plug, disc, or ball is near its seat and the flow is small, the change in flow rate will besmall; with a large flow, the change in flow rate will be large. Valves with an equal-percentageflow characteristic are generally used for pressure control applications. They are also used for other applications where a large percentage of the total system pressure drop is normally absorbed by the system itself, with only a relatively small percentage by the control valve. Valves with anequal-percentage characteristic should also be considered where highly varying pressure dropconditions could be expected.The modified parabolic-flow characteristic curve falls between the linear and the equal-percentagecurve. Note: Where detailed process knowledge is lacking, as a rule of thumb, use equal-percentagecharacteristics at 70 percent opening.
CRITICAL PRESSURE DROP
Critical flow limitation is a significant problem when sizing valves for gaseous service. Criticalflow is a choked flow condition caused by increasing gas velocity at the vena contracta. The venacontracta is the point of 
minimum
cross-sectional area of the flow stream which occurs justdownstream of the actual physical restriction. When the velocity at the vena contracta reachessonic velocity, additional increases in pressure drop, ∆P, (by reducing downstream pressure) produces no increase in flow.
SIZING BY CALCULATION
The gas sizing equations can be used to determine the flow of gas or vapor through any style of valve. Absolute units of temperature and pressure must be used in the equation. When the critical pressure drop ratio, ∆P/P, causes the sine angle to be 90 degrees, the equation will predict thevalue of the critical flow. For service conditions that would result in an angle of greater than 90degrees, the equation must be limited to 90 degrees, as no further increase in pressure drop willcause an increase in flow; critical flow has been reached.Most commonly, the gas and vapor sizing equations are used to determine the proper valve sizefor a given set of service conditions. The first step is to calculate the required Cg by using thesizing equation. The second step is to select a valve from the manufacturer's catalog. The valveselected should have a Cg, which equals or exceeds the calculated value. The assumed C, valuefor the Cg calculation must match the C, value for the valve selected from the catalog.
Berry’s Commissioning Handbook 

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