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Indian Geography

Indian Geography

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Published by Tage Nobin

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Published by: Tage Nobin on Oct 09, 2013
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


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Q: Why is India’s north
-south distance (3214 km) more than the east-west distance (2933),though both latitudinal and longitudinal extent of India is about 30 degree?A: This is because the distance between the longitudes decreases near the pole whereas thedistances between latitudes remain the same everywhere.
Time Zone
There is a general convention to select the standard time zone meridian in multiples of 7
of longitude. There are 24 time zones on earth, each 15 degree apart.USA uses multiple time zone system (7 time zones)India has the longest international boundary with Bangladesh.
Tropic of Cancer
passes through the following 8 states
MizoramGujarat has the longest coast line.UP borders the maximum number of states: 8
Highest: UP> Maha> Bihar > WB
Lowest: Sikkim< Mizoram < Arunachal < GoaArea
Highest: Rajasthan>MP> Maha>>Andhra
Lowest: Goa<Sikkim<Tripura<Nagaland<Mizoram
Three Geological divisions:1.
The peninsular block 2.
The Himalayas and other Peninsular Mountains3.
Indo-Ganga-Brahmaputra Plain
Peninsualar block is made of gneisses (metamorphic) and granites (igneous).Six physiographic divisions:1.
The Northern and North-eastern Mountains2.
The Northern Plain3.
The Peninsular Plateau4.
The Indian Desert5.
The Coastal Plains6.
The Islands
Northern and North-Eastern Mountains
Approximate length of the Great Himalayan range: 2500 KM. Width: 160-400 KMImpact of Himalayas on the climate of India?It can be divided into five sub-divisions:1.
Kashmir (or Northwestern) Himalayas2.
Himachal and Uttaranchal Himalayas3.
Darjeeling and Sikkim Himalayas4.
Arunachal Himalayas5.
Eastern Hills and Mountains
Kashmir Himalayas
Ranges: Karakoram, Ladhakh, Zaskar, Pir PinjalGlaciers: Baltoro, SiachenPasses: Zoji La (Great Himalayas), Banihal (Pir Pinjal), Photu La (Zaskar) and Khardung La(Ladakh)Lakes: (freshwater) Dal and Wular; (saltwater) Pangong Tso and Tso MoririPilgrimage: Vaishno Devi, Amarnath Cave, Charar-e-Sharif They are also famous for Karewa formations which are useful for the cultivation of Zafran (alocal variety of Saffron). Karewas are the thick deposits of glacial clay and other materialsembedded with moraines.Kashmir is located on the banks of Jhelum river.Meanders is a typical feature associated with the rivers in this region.In South, there are longitudinal valleys called duns; Jammu dun and Pathankot dun
Himachal and Uttarakhand Himalayas
Lies between rivers Ravi and KaliDrained by two major river systems: Indus and Ganga Northernmost part is an extension of the Ladakh desert, lies in Spiti.
Ranges: Great Himalayan Range, Lesser Himalayas (Dhaoladhar in HP and Nagtibha inUttarakhand), Shivalik rangePilgrimage: Gangotri, Yamunotri, Kedarnath, Badrinath, Hemkund Sahib and the fivefamous prayags (Refer to Panch Prayag)Famous for hill stations: Dharamshala, Mussoorie, Shimla, Kaosani; Cantt.: Kasauli, Almora,Lansdowne, RanikhetThe important distinguishin
g features of this area are the ‘Shivalik’ and ‘Dun formations’.
Important duns: Chandigarh-Kalka, Nalagarh, Dehra, Harike, KotaDehradun is the largest of all duns: Length
35-45 KM, Width: 22-25 KMInhabited with the
tribe. They migrate to higher reaches (Bugyals) in summer andreturn to the valleys during winters.
Darjeeling and Sikkim Himalayas
Between Nepal Himalayas and Bhutan Himalayas.Fast flowing rivers such as TistaPeaks: KanchenjungaTribe: LepchaHas a mixed population of Nepalis, Bengalis and tribals from Central India.Importance: Due to the moderate slope, it is best suited for tea plantations. <India producesabout 26 pc of tea in the world; second after China. Also, accounts for 12 pc of tea exports;fourth in the world.>Duar formations are peculiar to this region.
Arunachal Himalayas
From Bhutan Himalayas to Diphu pass in the east.Direction: Southwest to NortheastPeaks: Kangtu and Namya BarwaRivers: Brahmaputra, Kameng, Subansiri, Dihang, Dibang and Lohit.These rivers are perennial and have the
highest hydro-electric power potential
in thecountry.Tribes: Monpa, Daffla, Abor, Mishmi, Nishi and NagasThese communities practice shifting cultivation known as
Eastern Hills and Mountains
Direction: North to SouthRanges: Patkai Bum, Naga hills, Manipur hills, Mizo or Lushai hillsThese are low hillsTribes practice Jhum cultivationRivers: Barak. Most of the Nagaland rivers form a tributary of Brahmaputra. Rivers in easternManipur are the tributaries of Chindwin, which in turn is a tributary of the Irrawady of Myanmar.Lake: Loktak Loktak Lake: is an important lake in Manipur which is surrounded by mountains on all sides.It is the largest freshwater lake in northeastern India. Also called the only
Floating Lake
inthe world due to floating masses of organic matter on it. It serves as a source for hydropower generation, irrigation and drinking water supply.

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