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Kamus Antropologi

Kamus Antropologi

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Published by: pandupandawa on Jul 19, 2009
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abductor:
a muscle that moves a part of the body away from the midline of the body.
ABO blood-type system:
a blood-type system that consists of two basic antigens, A and B. Blood-type Ois the absence of both antigens.
abrasive stone:
usually a sandstone slab used for grinding and polishing.
absolute dating:
the determination of age with reference to a specific time scale, such as a fixedcalendrical system; also referred to as chronometric dating.
acclimatory adjustments:
reversible physiological adjustments to stressful environments.
accretion:
growth by virtue of an increase in inter-cellular materials.
acculturation:
cultural change that occurs in response to extended firsthand contacts between two or more previously autonomous groups.
acephalous society:
a society without a political head such as a president, chief, or king.
achieved status:
social standing and prestige reflecting the ability of an individual to acquire anestablished position in society as a result of individual accomplishments (cf. ascribed status).
acrocentric chromosome:
a chromosome in which the centromere is near one end, resulting in arms of very unequal length.
activity area:
a limited portion of a site in which a specialized cultural function was carried out, such asfood preparation, tool manufacture etc.
Adapidae:
family of Eocene prosimians found in North America, Asia, Europe, and possibly Africa; maybe related to lemurs and lorises.
adaptation:
changes in gene frequencies resulting from selective pressures being placed upon apopulation by environmental factors; results in a greater fitness of the population to its ecological niche.
adaptive radiation:
the evolution of a single evolutionary stock into a number of different species.
adenine:
a purine found in DNA and RNA.
adenosine triphosphate (ATP):
the main fuel of cells. ATP is manufactured by the mitochondria.
adjustment:
the ability of humans to survive in stressful environments by nongenetic means.
administrative system:
a twentieth-century system of ownership in which land is owned and managedby the state; found in China, the Soviet Union, and some parts of Africa and Latin America.
adolescent growth spurt:
a rapid increase in stature and other dimensions of the body that occursduring puberty.
adult:
the period in an individual's life cycle after the eruption of the last permanent teeth.
 
adze-blade:
a ground and polished stone artifact characterized by a generally rectangular shape with abeveled cutting edge on one end. Used as a woodworking tool.
aerial photography:
photographic coverage of the land surface obtained from the air. Useful in locatingand recording site positions.
aerial reconnaissance:
an important survey technique in the discovery and recording of archaeologicalsites (see also reconnaissance survey).
affiliative behavior:
close-proximity behavior that includes touching, grooming, and hugging.
affinal kin:
persons related by marriage.
age grade:
a group
 
of people of the same sex and approximately the same age who share a set of dutiesand privileges.
age set:
a group of people roughly the same age who pass through various age grades together.
agglutination:
a clumping together of red blood cells in the presence of an antibody.
aging:
the uninterrupted process of normal development that leads to a progressive decline inphysiological function and ultimately to death.
agonistic behavior:
behavior that involves fighting, threats, and fleeing.
albinism:
a recessive abnormality that leads to little or no production of the skin pigment melanin.
alidade:
an optical surveying instrument used in conjunction with a plane-table and stadia-rod to producedetailed large-scale topographic maps.
alienation:
the fragmentation of individuals' relations to their work, the things they produce, and theresources with which they produce them.
all-male party:
among chimpanzees, a small group of adult or adolescent males.
allantois:
a sack within the amniote egg in which waste products produced by the embryo are deposited.
allele:
an alternate form of a gene.
Allen's rule:
a rule which states that among endotherms, populations of the same species living near theequator tend to have more protruding body parts and longer limbs than do populations farther away fromthe equator.
allogrooming:
grooming another animal.
allometric growth:
the pattern of growth whereby different parts of the body grow at different rates withrespect to each other.
allomorphs:
forms contained in morphemes that differ in sound but not in meaning.
allopatric species:
species occupying mutually exclusive geographical areas.
 
allophones:
sounds that belong to the same phoneme.
alloying:
a technique involving the mixing of two or more metals to create an entirely new material, e.g.the fusion of copper and tin to make bronze.
alluvial fan:
a cone-shaped deposit of sediments generally formed where a mountain stream dischargesonto a level surface. Alluvial fan deposits are among the most common surficial sediments inmountainous terrain.
alluvium:
a general term for all deposits laid down in fresh water - most commonly applied to riverinesediments.
alpha chain:
one of the two chains that make up the globin unit of the hemoglobin molecule.
alpha-feto protein (AFP):
a compound, produced by the fetus, that enters the mother's blood through theplacenta. Excessive amounts of AFP may indicate neural tube defects or other fetal abnormalities.
altimeter:
a barometric device for determining elevations above sea-level.
altithermal:
a postulated climatic period characterized by warmer and/or drier conditions approximately4,000-8,000 years ago.
altruistic act:
a behavior characterized by self-sacrifice that benefits others.
alveoli:
small air sacs, located in the lungs, that are richly endowed with blood capillaries. Oxygen isabsorbed by the blood in the alveoli.
ambilineal descent:
a descent ideology based on ties traced through either the paternal or the maternalline.
ambilocality:
residence of a married couple with or near the kin of either husband or wife, as theychoose.
amino acid racemization:
chronometric dating method based on change in the three-dimensionalstructure of amino acids from one form to its mirror image over time.
amino acid:
a type of molecule that forms the basic building block of proteins.
amino-acid racemization:
a method used in the dating of both human and animal bone. Its specialsignificance is that with a small sample (10g) it can be applied to material up to 100,000 years old, i.e.beyond the time range of radiocarbon dating.
amniocentesis:
a medical technique in which amniotic fluid is removed for study of the fetus.
amnion:
a fluid-filled sack, formed from embryonic tissue, that contains the embryo in the amniote egg.
amniote egg:
an egg with a shell and several internal members, which made reproduction on landpossible.
amniotic fluid:
the fluid surrounding the fetus.

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