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Magnetoresistive Sensors

Magnetoresistive Sensors

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Published by melfer

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Published by: melfer on Jul 19, 2009
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

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09/22/2010

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Application Note 20Issue 1 April 1996
Magnetoresistive Sensors
Stefan HübschmannMatthias Schneider
Principles of Operation and Applications
This application note provides anoverview of the Zetex range ofMagnetoresistive sensors.The layout of a typical magnetoresistivechip (parent device 174B) is shown inFigure 1, and is for example the chipused in the ZMY20 sensor. Thin filmstripes are a characteristic feature of amagnetoresistive chip. These stripes aremade by photolithography and consistof Permalloy (Ni
81
Fe
19
), a magneticmaterial evaporated on an oxidisedsilicon wafer. The electrical resistivity ofthe stripes is changed by a magneticfield H
y
due to the magnetoresistiveeffect. The field H
y
causes a rotation ofthe magnetisation in the stripe. This isshown in Figure 2. The resistivity R of apermalloy stripe depends on the anglebetween the directions of electriccurrent (I) and magnetisation (M):R
 
=
R
o
 
+
 
R
o
cos
2
α
where
R
0
describes the strength of themagnetoresistive effect.The maximum relative change ofresistivity
R
0
 /R is approximately 2 to 3%for permalloy. The relationship betweenan external field H
y
and angle
α
is
AN20 - 1
Figure 1Magnetoresistive Magnetic Field Sensor,(Parent Device 174B).Figure 2The magnetoresistive effect depends onthe angle between the direction of electriccurrent (I) and magnetisation (M). Arotation of the magnetisation in apermalloy stripe takes place when amagnetic field in the y-direction is applied.Without an external field themagnetisation is along the x-directiondue the shape of the stripe.

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