-Proposing the theoryof relativity, a physical theory of gravity, space, and time-Explaining the photoelectric effectand Brownian motion
-Initiating the firstcontrolled nuclear chain reaction-The element fermium, discovered in1952, was named in honor of EnricoFermi.
-Experimentingwith electricity and developinginventions-Franklin invented bifocals and thelightning rod, and charted the courseof the Gulf Stream.
-Proposing that falling bodieswould all fall at the same rate,regardless of mass, if there were no airresistance-Galileo helped develop the scientificmethod by using experimentation totest physical theories. Galileoconstructed the first thermometer.
Stephen William Hawking
-Makingadvances in the field of cosmology–Discovering several new properties of black holes Explaining theoreticalphysics to the public through books,films, and lectures-Hawking's present objective is aunified field theory that, if successful,will combine quantum mechanics withrelativity.
-Inventing, in part, thebranch of mathematics now known ascalculus-Formulating the three laws of motionwhich describe classical mechanics-Proposing the theory of universalgravitation, which explains that allbodies are affected by the force calledgravity
-Deriving Pascal's law,which states that pressure exertedupon a liquid is transmitted equally inall directions-Proving experimentally that theheight of the mercury column in abarometer depends on thesurrounding air pressure-Formulating the mathematical theoryof probability with Frenchmathematician Pierre de Fermat-Inventing the first mechanical addingmachine
Johannes Diderik Van der Waals
-Van der Waals was interested primarilyin thermodynamics; he developed atheory of corresponding states on thecontinuity of the liquid and gaseousstates of matter expressed in the vander Waals equation. For thesediscoveries he was awarded the 1910Nobel Prize in physics. He also studiedthe attractive forces holding the atomsof molecules together. These arecalled van der Waals forces, in hishonor.
- fundamentallaw of chemistry stating that underidentical conditions of temperatureand pressure, equal volumes of gasescontain an equal number of molecules.
- he discovered therelationship between the volume of gas and temperature, known variouslyas Gay-Lussac's law or Charles's law.
William Thomson, 1st BaronKelvin
-, the absolute or Kelvin scaleis most widely used wherein in thisscale, absolute zero is at -273.15°C,which is zero K, and the degreeintervals are identical to thosemeasured on the Celsius scale.
Joseph Louis Gay-Lussac
-Frenchchemist and physicist, known for his