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Lectures on Functional Synt

Lectures on Functional Synt

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Lectures on Functional Syntax
Scott DeLanceyUniversity of Oregon
Draft--comments welcomeDepartment of Linguistics1290 University of OregonEugene, OR 97403-1290U.S.A
delancey@darkwing.uoregon.edu
 
Lecture 1: On Functionalism..........................................................................................................................................81.1.....................................................................................................................Functionalism on the Linguistic Map...................................................................................................................................................................................91.2 Functionalist Metatheory..................................................................................................................................111.2.1 Structural and Functional definitions.......................................................................................................121.2.2 Formal and functional explanation..........................................................................................................131.2.3 Innateness and Autonomy........................................................................................................................171.2.4 The Typological Approach.......................................................................................................................211.3......................................................................................................................The Form of a Functional Grammar.................................................................................................................................................................................221.4....................................................................Functional Explanation: Motivation, Routinization, and Diachrony.................................................................................................................................................................................241.4.1 Motivation................................................................................................................................................251.4.2 Routinization............................................................................................................................................281.4.3 The Origins of Opacity............................................................................................................................30Lecture 2: Lexical Categories.......................................................................................................................................332.1 Defining categories..........................................................................................................................................332.1.1 Structural categories.................................................................................................................................362.2 Nouns and Verbs..............................................................................................................................................382.2.1 Nouns and Verbs as Universal Categories...............................................................................................382.2.2 What are Nouns and Verbs?.....................................................................................................................412.3 Adjectives.........................................................................................................................................................452.3.1 Verbal and Nominal Property Concept Words........................................................................................462.3.2 Adjective as a Functional Sink................................................................................................................502.4 Problems for a Theory of Minor Categories....................................................................................................522.4.1 Categories of one.....................................................................................................................................532.4.2 Universal categories? The adposition story............................................................................................56Lecture 3: Figure and Ground in Argument Structure.................................................................................................603.1 The Concept of Case........................................................................................................................................603.2 On Case Grammar............................................................................................................................................623.2.1 Early suggestions.....................................................................................................................................653.2.2 Typology and case...................................................................................................................................663.3 The grammar of THEME and LOC.................................................................................................................693.3.1 The Semantic Structure of Ditransitive Clauses......................................................................................693.3.2 The Semantic Structure of Possessional Clauses....................................................................................703.3.3 .................................................................................................................................................................733.3.4 Locative and Theme objects....................................................................................................................753.3.5 The Syntax and Semantics of Theme and Loc........................................................................................773.4 The Theoretical Importance of Thematic Relations........................................................................................803.4.1 Defining Relations in Terms of Event Structure.....................................................................................803.4.2 Theme, Loc, and Innateness....................................................................................................................82Lecture 5: Grammaticalization.....................................................................................................................................885.1 Introduction......................................................................................................................................................885.1.1 History of grammaticalization studies......................................................................................................885.1.2. Grammatical and lexical meaning...........................................................................................................895.1.3. Theoretical significance of grammaticalization studies..........................................................................90
 
5.2. An overview of grammaticalization.................................................................................................................925.2.1. Grammaticalization exemplified..............................................................................................................925.2.2. Stages of grammaticalization..................................................................................................................935.2.3. The cycle..................................................................................................................................................965.2.4 Sources and Pathways..............................................................................................................................985.3. The process of grammaticalization...............................................................................................................1005.3.1 Functional aspects of grammaticalization..............................................................................................1005.3.2 Syntactic aspects of grammaticalization................................................................................................1015.3.3 Grammaticalization and Lexicalization.................................................................................................103Lecture 6: Two Questions of Phrase Structure............................................................................................................1056.1 The Gradience of Categories..........................................................................................................................1056.1.1 Relator Nouns and the gradience of categories......................................................................................1066.1.2 Postpositions and Relator Nouns in Tibetan..........................................................................................1086.1.3 Problems of Phrase Structure.................................................................................................................1116.2 Grammaticalization and Cross-categorial Correlations.................................................................................1146.2.1 Early Word Order Studies.......................................................................................................................1146.2.2 Grammaticalization and Typology.........................................................................................................1166.2.3 Grammaticalization and the Theory of Phrase Structure......................................................................118Lecture 7: Toward a Typology of Grammatical Relations...........................................................................................1197.1 A Typology of Grammatical Relations...........................................................................................................1197.1.1 The Nominative-Accusative Pattern.......................................................................................................1207.1.2 Ergative Patterns.....................................................................................................................................1217.1.3 Split S.....................................................................................................................................................1237.2 A language without syntactic subjects or objects...........................................................................................1247.2.1 Case in Tibetan.......................................................................................................................................1247.2.1.1 Absolutive.......................................................................................................................................1247.2.1.2 Locative..........................................................................................................................................1257.2.1.3 Ergative..........................................................................................................................................1267.2.1.4 Case and Grammatical Relations...................................................................................................1277.2.2 Relativization.........................................................................................................................................1287.2.2.1 Relativization and Thematic Relations..........................................................................................1287.2.2.2 Evidence for Incipient Subjecthood..............................................................................................1317.2.3 Auxiliary selection.................................................................................................................................1337.2.4 Subject and Object in Tibetan................................................................................................................135Lecture 8: Split-ergative and Inverse Systems............................................................................................................1378.1 Split Ergative and Inverse Marking................................................................................................................1378.1.1 Split-ergative Case Marking and Indexation..........................................................................................1378.1.2 Inverse systems.......................................................................................................................................1408.1.2.1 Nocte..............................................................................................................................................1418.1.2.2 The classic direction system: Cree...............................................................................................1438.1.2.3 The direction-marking prototype...................................................................................................1458.2 Variations on a Theme....................................................................................................................................1458.2.1 Hierarchical agreement..........................................................................................................................1458.2.2 Sahaptian................................................................................................................................................1478.2.3 Inverse with nonhierarchical agreement................................................................................................1498.2.3.1 Expansion of the Cislocative in Kuki-Chin..................................................................................150

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