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AP Biology Glossary

AP Biology Glossary

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Published by Tony Hue
Glossary of common terms and concepts for studying for the AP Biology exam.
Glossary of common terms and concepts for studying for the AP Biology exam.

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Categories:Types, School Work
Published by: Tony Hue on Oct 09, 2013
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


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AP Biology Glossaryabiotic factors
- Nonliving elements of an ecosystem, such as atmosphere, water, and rocks
- Movement of small molecules into the mucous membranes that line the digestive tract
acetyl CoA
- Chemical used to start the Krebs cycle in plant cellular respiration
- A common neurotransmitter that crosses the gap between motor neurons and muscle fiber in animals
acidic solutions
- Solutions with a pH of less than 7
- Substance that raises the pH of a solution
- Bilaterally symmetrical animal that do not have a body cavity
- Vesicle capping the head of the compact nucleus of a sperm and aiding in the penetration of the egg
- Protein filaments that, along with myosin, allow muscles to contract
action potential
- Reversal of electric potential across a neuron membrane, allowing the transmission of a nerve impulse
activation energy
- Initial input of energy required for chemical reactions to take place
- Protein that increases the rate of transcription by improving the ability of RNA polymerase to bind to the promoter 
active immunity
Immunity developed after the body’s exposure to an infection
active site
- Part of the enzyme that binds with a substrate
active transport
Movement of materials powered by the expenditure of a cell’s energy
Inherited characteristics, physical or behavioral, that enhance an organism’s ability
to survive and reproduce in an environment
- Lymphatic tissue found at the back of the nasal passage
adenosine triphosphate (ATP)
- The energy currency of the cell; a nucleotide involved in intracellular energy transfer in all organisms
adrenal cortex
Part of the adrenal gland that controls the body’s responses to stress through the production of specific hormones
adrenal medulla
- Part of the adrenal gland that produces a group of hormones called catecholamines
adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)
- Hormone that stimulates production of corticosteroids in the adrenal cortex
adventitious plantlets
- Notches on plant leaves that give rise to new plants in some forms of asexual reproduction
alcoholic fermentation
- Method by which pyruvic acid is converted to ethanol
- Hormone that stimulates the distal tubes of the kidney to reabsorb sodium and water 
- Embryonic membrane that forms the umbilical cord
- Each variation of a given gene
- Abnormal or excessive immune defense to an antigen
allometric growth
- Period of development when organs in an animal body develop at rates that vary from each other 
allopatric speciation
- Mechanism by which two geographically isolated populations evolve into separate species
allosteric site
- Any site on an enzyme that is not an active site
alternation of generations
- Plant reproductive cycle in which a haploid phase, during which a gametophyte is formed, leads to a diploid phase, in which asporophyte is formed. Spores produced by the meiotic division of the sporophyte then lead to new gametophytes.
- Acts performed by one individual in a population that are beneficial to others but detrimental to that individual
- Tiny sacs in the lungs where gases are exchanged with the blood
- Functional group containing nitrogen and three substituents. The functional groups within a given molecule are those atomsresponsible for the characteristic result in a chemical reaction.
amino acid
- Small molecule composed of a central carbon atom, an amino group, a carboxyl group, a hydrogen atom, and a functional group
labeled ―R‖
- Process during which nitrogen-containing compounds are broken down by bacteria and fungi and converted to ammonium ions
- Membrane enclosing the sac containing amniotic fluid and the embryo in amniotic eggs
amniotic eggs
- Shelled eggs containing a nutrient-filled amniotic sac that prevents dehydration of the embryo and provides it with protection andnourishment
amniotic sac
- Two thin, transparent membranes that hold the developing embryo until just prior to birth
- Region of the brain within which sensory data converges from other sources, such as the thalamus and brainstem
analogous trait

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