Vertical ground Motions and Its effect on Engineering Structures:A state-of-the-art review
During the recent earthquakes, the vertical component of the ground motion found to be exceeding the horizontal component,which directly contradicts the current codal provision that assumes the value of the vertical ground motion to be 1/2 to 2/3 of thehorizontal component. After almost every destructive earthquake some engineers postulates that the structural damage was due tostrong vertical ground motion. Therefore, seismic design of the structure without the consideration of the vertical ground motioncomponent may result in unquantifiable risk from the collapse, especially those constructed in the close proximity of the fault.However there seems to be no consensus as to the importance on damage due to vertical motions, and little that has been learnedfrom the recent earthquake in Loma-Prieta, Northridge, or Kobe which indicates conclusively that damage to structures waspredominantly by vertical motions. This paper presents the assemblage of the state of art study on the vertical ground motion andits effects on the engineering structures.
vertical ground motion, Spectral ratio, Fourier spectra, vertical response period, shear response
It is a well Known fact that the civil engineeringstructures are subjected to the three dimensionalearthquake ground motions. But it is only thehorizontal motion which has been extensivelystudied and considered in the design Processwhereas the vertical component of the groundmotion has generally been neglected in design andhardly studied from hazard point of view. Also mostof the Prevailing building codes including NBC 105,IS 1893, UBC 97 and many other codes worldwideassume the vertical component of the ground motionto be ½ to
of the horizontal component. However,in recent destructive earthquakes such as the 1989Loma Prieta, 1994 Northridge, 1995 Kobe and 1999Chi-Chi, it was found that vertical ground motionmay equal or even signiﬁcantly exceed the localhorizontal ground motion. In such situations, mostexisting code speciﬁcations must be consideredunconservative.In recent years many authors has highlighted thisfact and done significant researches to identify andquantify the damaging potential of the verticalcomponent of ground motion. Many studies reporteddata showing that the vertical peak acceleration maybe even higher than the horizontal value. Othershave attributed the observed failure on theReinforced concrete structures to the reduction of shear strength caused by vertical ground motioneffects. Similar findings on the eroded shearcapacity of columns due to vertical excitationinfluences were also highlighted. As recently shownby Kunnath et al. (2008), vertical motion maymagnify and potentially create reversal of bendingmoment in longitudinal bridge girders. Widespreadphenomenon of bearing failure and deck unseating,as observed during the recent earthquakes, waspartially attributed to the destructive impact of vertical motions. However effects on verticalacceleration on response of the long span cablestayed bridge and its steel tower was found to beslight (Shrestha, 2009; Abdel raheem, Hayashikawaand Aly, 2002). Based on a large body of availablestudies, it is possible to conclude that verticalshaking may escalate the axial column force, causean increase in the moment and shear demand, andamplify plastic deformation, extend plastic hingeformation and finally diminish the ductility capacityof structural component. In order to include thevertical motion effects in design, recent efforts haveconsidered the development of vertical groundmotion spectra by focusing mostly on near-faultaccelerograms (e.g.;Elnashai and Papazoglou, 1997;Kalkan and Gülkan, 2004). These studies havedeveloped vertical ground motion spectra andconcentrated on its parallel use with the horizontalground motion spectra. In some existing buildingcodes, Eurocode 8 for example, much more