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SMU - MGMT 002 Technology and World Changes Notes - Neo Kok Beng

SMU - MGMT 002 Technology and World Changes Notes - Neo Kok Beng

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Published by Desmond Chew
SMU - MGMT 002 Technology and World Changes Notes - Neo Kok Beng
SMU - MGMT 002 Technology and World Changes Notes - Neo Kok Beng

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Published by: Desmond Chew on Oct 10, 2013
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Technology and World Change
PART A: Technology & Society Readings (Purely Policy Perspective)
Keep in mind:1.
Creative Destruction2.
New Growth Theory a.
For a developing country, the most important government policiesmay be those that determine the rate of technological transfer fromthe rest of the world b.
For an advanced economy, the most important policies may be theones that influence the rate of technological innovation in the privatesector
Section 1: Global Innovation Index
 Singapore, China, India, Vietnam, Malaysia and Switzerlan
Global Innovation Index Conceptual Framework
(Annex 1). Know how thisframework works, and how is it used?
Index Factors Key PointsInnovationInput Sub-IndexInstitution
 An institutional framework attracting businessesand fostering growth by providing goodgovernance and the correct levels of protectionand incentives is essential to innovation
 Political environmen
: quality of public and civilservices, policy formulation, andimplementation; and perceptions on violations topress freedom
 Regulatory environmen
: Ability of govt toformulate and implement cohesive policies that
Technology and World Change
promote the development of the private sectorand at evaluating the extent to which the ROLprevails; evaluating the cost of redundancy dismissal as the sum, in salary weeks, of the costof advance notice requirements added toseverance payments due when terminating aredundant worker
 Business environmen
 What affects privateentrepreneurial endeavours? Looks at the ease of starting a business, resolving insolvency and easeof paying taxesHuman Capitaland Research
 Elementary and secondary education levels
: What is the education expenditure, school lifeexpectancy? Public expenditure per pupil?Quality of education?
Tertiary education
: What is the tertiary employment? Priority given to the sectorstraditionally associated with innovation (serieson % of tertiary graduates in science andengineering, manufacturing and construction);inbound and gross outbound mobility of tertiary students
: Level and quality of activities; indicatorson researchers (headcount!), expenditure,perceptions of quality of scientific and researchinstitutionsInfrastructure
 Information and communication technologies(ICT)
: ICT access, ICT use, online service by governments, and online participation of citizens
General infrastructure
: electricity supply (theaverage of electricity output and consumption inkWh per capita); a composite indicator, acomposite indicator on the quality of trade andtransport related infrastructure (roads, ports,etc); and gross capital formation (outlays onadditions to fixed assets and net inventories of the economy 
land improvements, constructionof roads, schools, etc)
 Ecological sustainability
: GDP per unit of energy use (a measure of efficiency in the use of energy),the Environmental Performance Index of Yaleand Columbia University, and the number of certificates of conformity with standard ISO14001 on environmental management systemsissuedMarketSophistication
: Ease of getting credit, aimed atmeasuring the degree to which collateral and bankruptcy laws facilitate lending by protectingthe rights of borrowers and lenders, as well asrules and practices affecting the coverage, scopeand accessibility of credit information
: % rank index on the ease of protecting investors
Trade and competition
: Average tariff rate
Technology and World Change
 weighted by import shares, and a measurecapturing market access conditions to foreignmarkets (five major export markets weightedactual applied tariffs for non-agriculturalexports)BusinessSophistication
 Knowledge workers
: Employment in knowledge-intensive services; the availability of formaltraining at the level of firm; and the percentage of total gross expenditure of R&D that is eitherfinanced or performed by business enterprise
 Innovation linkages and  public/private/academic partnerships essential to innovation
: qualitative and quantitative dataregarding business/university collaboration onR&D, the prevalence of well-developed and deepclusters, collaboration in incentive activities, thelevel of gross R&D expenditure financed by abroad and the number of deals on joint venturesand strategic alliances
 Knowledge absorption (sectors that have high-tech content or are key to innovation)
: Royalty and license fees payments as a % of GDP; high-tech imports (net of re-imports) as a % of totalimports; imports of computer, communications,and other services as a % of commercial serviceimports; and net inflows of FDI as a % of GDPInnovationOutputSub-IndexKnowledge andtechnology outputs
Creation of knowledge
: Patent applications filed by residents both at the national patent officeand at the international level through the PCT;utility model applications filed by residents at thenational office; and scientific and technicalpublished articles in peer-reviewed journals
 Knowledge impact 
: statistics representing theimpact of innovation activities at the micro andmacro-economic level or related proxies:increases in labour productivity, the entry density of new firms, and spending on software
 Knowledge diffusion
: royalty and license feesreceipts as a % of GDP; high-tech exports (net of re-exports) as a % of total exports (net of re-exports); exports of computer, communications,and other services as % of commercial serviceexports; and net outflows of FDI as a % of GDPCreativeoutputs
Creative intangibles
: statistics on trademark registrations by residents at the national officeand under the Madrid System, as well as twosurvey questions regarding the use of ICT in business and organizational models, new areasthat are increasingly linked to processinnovations in the literature
Creative goods and services
: proxies used to getat creativity and creative outputs in an economy 
Creation of online content (such as YouTube,Wikipedia monthly edits, etc)
: made to cover

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