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the treatment of mental disorders

the treatment of mental disorders

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Published by muhammadtaimoorkhan
psychology,students, mba. bba, business, projects, assignments, Pakistan, comsats, lahore, taimoor,
psychology,students, mba. bba, business, projects, assignments, Pakistan, comsats, lahore, taimoor,

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Published by: muhammadtaimoorkhan on Jul 20, 2009
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02/01/2013

T
THE
HET
TREATMENT
REATMENTO
OF
FM
MENTAL
ENTAL
D
DISORDERS
ISORDERS/P
/PSYCHOTHERAPIES
SYCHOTHERAPIES
P
PSYCHOTHERAPY
SYCHOTHERAPY:

The procedure of treatment of a mental disorder is calledPsycho therapy. It is a
process in which a professional makes attempt to remedy the client\u2019s psychological
difficulties.

A)P
PSYCHOANALYSIS
SYCHOANALYSIS:

Sigmund Freud is given credit for developingpsychoana lysis, a form of therapy
aimed at providing the client insight into his or her unconsciousness motivations and
impulses.

Psychoanalysis assumes that the past experiences cause current psychological
problems. The purpose of therapy is to create a setting in which clues about the origins of
intrapsychic conflicts are most likely to be revealed by the client. These clues are
revealed in the client\u2019s dreams, physical problems, memory, and manner of speech and
emotional relations of therapy. Then, by exposing the client to the clues, he or she will
gain insight to the problem.

While the psychoanalyst\u2019s primary role is interpretation, the client\u2019s main job is to
provide the psychoanalyst something to interpret: descriptions of his or her fears,
anxieties, thoughts, or repressed memories.

P
PSYCHOANALYTIC
SYCHOANALYTICT
TECHNIQUES
ECHNIQUES:
i.
F
FREE
REEA
ASSOCIATION
SSOCIATION:

A psychoanalytic procedure in which the client is encouraged to speak
freely, without censoring possibly embarrassing or socially unacceptable thoughts
or ideas.
Psychoanalyst achieves his goal in two ways. First, the client was encouraged to
report any thoughts or images that came to mind, without worrying about their
meanings. Second, he or she attempts to minimize any convincing influence over
the client\u2019s disclosure by eliminating eye contact.

Free association actually represents important clues to the unconsciousness,
which has its own logic. It is the analyst\u2019s job to recognize and label the
connection between what is being said and the patient\u2019s unconsciousness.
ii.
D
DREAM
REAMI
INTERPRETATION
NTERPRETATION:

Patient\u2019s dreams are examined to find clues to the unconsciousness
conflicts and problems being experienced. Dream Interpretation, the evaluation of
the underlying meaning of dream content. Freud says dreams provide close look
at the unconsciousness because people defenses tend to be lowered when they are
asleep.

iii.
R
RESISTANCE
ESISTANCE:
1

The client often becomes defensive at some point during therapy,
unconsciously attempting to halt further insight by censoring his/her feelings, a
process calledresistance. Furthermore, since these unconscious memories are
painful, the client is likely to use defense mechanisms to resist discovering these
painful past experiences.
A psychoanalyst may conclude that resistance is operating when the client tries to
change the topic, begins to miss appointments for therapy, or suddenly forgets
what he/she was about to say. The skilled therapist, who is not burdened by the
clients\u2019 resistance, recognizes such diversions and redirects the discussion to the
sensitive topics while minimizing the pain of rediscovery.

iv.
T
TRANSFERENCE
RANSFERENCE:

The process by which a client begins to projects powerful attitudes and
emotions onto the therapist.
Over a period of months or even years of therapy, sessions taking place as often as
several times a week, the client gradually becomes less inhabited, and the
discussion begins to drift away from recent events to the more distant shores of
early childhood. The client may come to love or hate the therapist with the same
intensity of the powerful emoticons experienced in childhood towards parents or
siblings.

v.
C
COUNTER
OUNTER-T
-TRANSFERENCE
RANSFERENCE:

The process by which the therapist projects his/her emoticons onto the
client.
Unlike transference, Freud believedCounter-Transference to be unhealthy and
undesirable. To be effective, the analyst must remain, emotionally detached and
objective in his/her appraisal of the client\u2019s disclosures.

B)G
GESTALT
ESTALTT
THERAPIES
HERAPIES:
A form of therapy emphasizing the unity of mind and body by teaching the client
to \u201cget in touch\u201d with unconscious bodily sensations and emotional feelings.
Gestalt therapy places exclusive emphasize upon present experience \u2014 not on the

past \u2014 and the gestalt therapist will often be quiet confrontive, challenging the client to
deal honestly with his/her emoticons. In Gestalt therapy the therapist will often have the
client adopt the perspective of some person or even some object in the dream in an
empathic manner.

G
GESTALT
ESTALTT
THERAPY
HERAPYT
TECHNIQUES
ECHNIQUES:
i.
E
EMPTY
MPTYC
CHAIR
HAIRT
TECHNIQUE
ECHNIQUE:

Therapists often use the Empty Chair Technique, in which the client
imaging that he/she is talking to someone sitting in the chair beside him/her.
For Example: A woman may be asked to say the thing that she always wanted to
say to her deceased father but didn\u2019t while he was alive. The Empty Chair

2
Technique allows her to experience in the here and now the feelings and

perceptions that she may have suppressed while her father was alive. It also
allows her to express these feeling and to gain insight into how these feelings
have influenced her perception of herself and her world.

ii.
S
SELF
ELFT
TALKING
ALKING:

The gestalt therapist also encourages the client to gain a better
understanding of his/her feelings by talking to his or herself and to intimate
objects. Any attempts by client to avoid the reality of his/her situation is
challenged by the therapist, who constantly attempts to keep the clients\u2019 for
attention focused on present problems and tries to guide the client toward an
honest confrontation with these problems.

C)H
HUMANISTIC
UMANISTICT
THERAPIES
HERAPIES:
A form of therapy focusing on the person\u2019s unique potential for personal growth
and self-actualization.
Humanistic Therapies proceeds from assumptions that people are good and have
innate worth. Psychological problems reflect some type of blocking of one\u2019s potential for
personal growth; Humanistic Therapy is aimed at realizing this potential. A major form of
Humanistic Therapy is called Client-Centered Therapy.
C
CLIENT
LIENT-C
-CENTERED
ENTEREDT
THERAPY
HERAPY:

A form of therapy in which the client is allowed to decide what to talk
about without strong direction and judgment from the therapist.
The client takes ultimate responsibility for resolving his/her problems. The client
not a method or theory is the focus of the therapy.
Rogers (father of Client-Centered Therapy) believed that the cause of many
psychological problems can be traced to people\u2019s perceptions of themselves as
they actually are as differing from the people they would like to be. Rogers called
this discrepancy between the real and ideal perceptions of the selfincongruence.
The goal of the Client-Centered Therapy is to reduce incongruence by forecasting
experience that will make attainment of the ideal self possible.
In Client-Centered Therapy, the therapist totally and unconditionally accepts the
client and approves of him/her as a person so that the client can come to
understand that his/her feelings are worthwhile and important. Once the client
begins to pay attentions to these feelings, a self-healing process begins.
For Example: A client usually has difficulty at first experiencing feelings verbally.
The therapist tries to understand the feelings underlying the client\u2019s confused state
and to help him/her put them into words. Through this process the client learns to
understand and heeds his/her own drive toward self-actualization.

D)B
BEHAVIORAL
EHAVIORALT
THERAPIES
HERAPIES:
3

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