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Ch18 Hexaedron Element

Ch18 Hexaedron Element

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Published by little-wing
chapter on principles of FEM analysis
chapter on principles of FEM analysis

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Published by: little-wing on Jul 21, 2009
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08/28/2010

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.
1 8
HexahedronElements
18–1
 
Chapter 18: HEXAHEDRON ELEMENTS
18
2
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page
§18.1.
Introduction
18–3§18.1.1. Natural Coordinates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 183§18.1.2. Corner Numbering Rules . . . . . . . . . . . . . 183§18.2.
The Eight Node (Trilinear) Hexahedron
18–4§18.3.
The 20-node (Serendipity) Hexahedron
18–5§18.4.
The 27-Node Hexahedron
18–6§18.5.
Partial Derivatives
18–6§18.5.1. The Jacobian . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 187§18.5.2. Computing the Jacobian Matrix . . . . . . . . . . . 187§18.6.
The Strain Displacement Matrix
18–8§18.7.
Stiffness Matrix Evaluation
18–9§18.7.1. Selecting the Integration Rule . . . . . . . . . . . . 189§18.
Exercises
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1810
18
2
 
18
3
§
18.1 INTRODUCTION
§
18.1. Introduction
The generalization of a quadrilateral three-dimensions is a
hexahedron
, also known in the
niteelement literature as
brick 
. A hexahedron is topologically equivalent to a cube. It has eight corners,twelve edges or sides, and six faces.Finite elements with this geometry are extensively used in modeling three-dimensional solids.Hexahedra also have been the motivating factor for the development of 
Ahmad-Pawsey
shellelements through the use of the
degenerated solid
concept.The construction of hexahedra shape functions and the computation of the stiffness matrix wasgreatlyfacilitatedbythreeadvancesin
niteelementtechnology: naturalcoordinates,isoparametricdescription and numerical integration. Together these revolutionized the
nite element
eld in themid-1960
s.
§
18.1.1. Natural Coordinates
Before presenting examples of hexahedron elements, we have to introduce the appropriate
naturalcoordinate system
for that geometry. The natural coordinates for this geometry are called
ξ
,
η
and
µ
, and are called
isoparametric hexahedral coordinates
or simply
natural coordinates
.These coordinates are illustrated in Figure 18.1. As can be seen they are very similar to thequadrilateral coordinates
ξ
and
η
used in IFEM. They vary from -1 on one face to +1 on theopposite face, taking the value zero on the
median
face. As in the quadrilateral, this particularchoice of limits was made to facilitate the use of the standard Gauss integration formulas.
§
18.1.2. Corner Numbering Rules
The eight corners of a hexahedron element are locally numbered 1
,
2
...
8. The corner numberingrule is similar to that given for the 4-node tetrahedron in Chapter 14. Again the purpose is toguarantee a positive volume (or, more precisely, a positive Jacobian determinant at every point).The transcription of those rules to the hexahedron element is as follows:1. Chose one starting corner, which is given number 1, and one initial face pertaining to thatcorner (given a starting corner, there are three possible faces meeting at that corner that maybe selected).2. Number the other 3 corners as 2,3,4 traversing the initial face counterclockwise
1
while onelooks at the initial face from the opposite one.3. Number the corners of the opposite face directly opposite 1,2,3,4 as 5,6,7,8, respectively.
1
Anticlockwise
in British.
18
3

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