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Food Industry

Food Industry

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Published by Sarah Santos

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Published by: Sarah Santos on Oct 11, 2013
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


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Food industry
Packaged food aisles atFred Meyer,an Americangrocery store Parmigiano reggianoCheesein a modernfactory The
food industry
is a complex, global collective of diversebusinessesthat supply much of thefood energyconsumed by theworld population.Onlysubsistence farmers,those who survive on what they grow, can be considered outside of the scope of the modernfoodindustry.  The food industry includes:
:local, regional, national and international rules and regulations for food production and sale, includingfood qualityandfood safety,and industrylobbying activities
:agrichemicals,seed,farm machineryand supplies, agricultural construction,etc.
:raising of crops and livestock,seafood
:preparation of fresh products for market, manufacture of prepared food products
:promotion of generic products (e.g. milk board), new products, publicopinion, throughadvertising,packaging,public relations,et
It is challenging to find an inclusive way to cover all aspects of food production and sale.TheFood Standards Agency,a government body in the India, describes it thus:
"...the whole food industry 
from farming and food production, packaging anddistribution, to retail and catering."
The Economic Research Service of the USDA uses the term
 food system
to describe thesame thing:
"The U.S. food system is a complex network of farmers and the industries that link tothem. Those links include makers of farm equipment and chemicals as well as firms thatprovide services to agribusinesses, such as providers of transportation and financialservices. The system also includes the food marketing industries that link farms toconsumers, and which include food and fiber processors, wholesalers, retailers, andfoodservice establishments."
Industry size
Processed food sales worldwide are approximately US$3.2trillion(2004).
In 2012,U.S.consumersspent approximately US$1.8 trillion annually on food,
 or nearly 10 percent of theGross Domestic Product(GDP). Over 16.5 million people areemployed in the food industry.
In the United Kingdom, the food industry is extensive. It employs 2 million people andhas a turnover in excess of £70bn. It is the largest manufacturing sector in the UK andrepresents around 15% of the total manufacturing sector in the UK. Around 13% of the people working in manufacturing in the UK work in the food and drink industry.
Main article:Agriculture
Agriculture is the process of producing food, feeding products, fiber and other desired products by the cultivation of certain plants and the raising of domesticated animals(livestock). The practice of agriculture is also known as "farming". Scientists, inventorsand others devoted to improving farming methods and implements are also said to beengaged in agriculture. More people in the world are involved in agriculture as their  primary economic activity than in any other, yet it only accounts for twenty percent of theworld's Gross Domestic Product (GDP).
Food processing
Main article:Food processing
Food processing includes the methods and techniques used to transform raw ingredientsinto food for human consumption. Food processing takes clean, harvested or slaughteredand butchered components and uses them to produce marketable food products. There areseveral different ways in which food can be produced.
One Off Production
This method is used when customers make an order for somethingto be made to their own specifications, for example a wedding cake. The making of One
Off Products could take days depending on how intricate the design is and also the abilityof the chef involved.
Batch Production
This method is used when the size of the market for a product is notclear, and where there is a range within a product line. A certain number of the samegoods will be produced to make up a batch or run, for example at Gregg's Bakery theywill bake a certain number of chicken bakes. This method involves estimating the number of customers that will want to buy that product.
Mass production
This method is used when there is a mass market for a large number of identical products, for example chocolate bars, ready meals and canned food. The product passes from one stage of production to another along a production line.
Just In Time
This method of production is mainly used in sandwich bars such asSubway.All the components of the product are available in-house and the customer chooses what they want in their product. It is then prepared with fresh ingredients in frontof the buyer.
 Wholesale and distribution
A vast global transportation network is required by the food industry in order to connectits numerous parts. These include suppliers, manufacturers, warehousing, retailers and theend consumers. There are also companies that add vitamins, minerals, and other requirednecessities during processing to make up for those lost during preparation.Wholesalemarketsfor fresh food products have tended to decline in importance inOECDcountries. This also occurred in Latin America and some Asian countries as a result of the growth of supermarkets,which procure directly from farmers or through preferred suppliers, rather than going through markets.
The constant and uninterrupted flow of product from distribution centers to storelocations is a critical link in food industry operations. Distribution centers run moreefficiently, throughput can be increased, costs can be lowered, and manpower better utilized if the proper steps are taken when setting up a material handling system in awarehouse. 
With populations around the world concentrating in urban areas,
 food buying isincreasingly removed from all aspects of food production. This is a relatively recentdevelopment, having taken place mainly over the last 50 years. The supermarket is thedefining retail element of the food industry. There, tens of thousands of products aregathered in one location, in continuous, year-round supply. Restaurants, cafes, bakeriesand mobile trucks also provide opportunities for consumers to purchase food.
Food preparation is another area where the change in recent decades has been dramatic.Today, two food industry sectors are in apparent competition for the retail food dollar.The grocery industry sells fresh and largely raw products for consumers to use asingredients in home cooking. Thefood serviceindustry by contrast offers prepared food,either as finished products, or as partially prepared components for final "assembly".
Food industry technologies
Modern food production is defined by sophisticated technologies. These include manyareas. Agricultural machinery, originally led by thetractor,has practically eliminated

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