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Valve Sizing_Flow Rate

Valve Sizing_Flow Rate

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Published by mkhalil410

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Published by: mkhalil410 on Oct 12, 2013
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10/12/2013

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3. Sizing flow capacity
3. Sizing flow capacity3.1. Relation between pressure loss and the kv value definition
p1p2
Q++
p = p1 - p2
Nominal size DNkv values
ρ
,pv,Medium:
T1T2
η
2DN6DN
Q
Experience shows that the pressure difference
p
with a throttle element and a turbulent flow isproportional to the quadratic flow quantity (
Q
2
).In flow technics, one usually uses the so-called pressure-loss coefficient
ζ
for this purpose, which isalways assigned to a cross-section A (e.g. nominal valve size cross section):
ppp2(Q A)
12nom. size2
= = • ρζ
In automated engineering, process quantities are controlled by changing the flow quantity
Q
. Thepressure difference is simply a means to this end (valve authority). As a parameter for flow capacity,one therefore has the
k
v
value as the water quantity
k in m/h
v3
at a pressure difference of 
p=1 ba
0
. The water density at 20 degrees C is
= 1000 kg/m
03
ρ
. 
ppp2(k A)
012vnom. size2
= − = ρζ
0
or 
ζρ=
2
0
p( Ak)
0nom. sizev2
The last equation gives the relation between the pressure loss coefficient
ζ
(with relation to thenominal size) and the
k
v
value.The rule of thumb usually applied:
 
kQp
v
=
is only correct for water (20 degrees C). More correct is the formulation:
kppQ
v00
= ρρ
or 
Qppk
0v
= ρρ
0
.This equation means that the flow quantity doubles when the pressure difference is increased four times.The equation above is only correct for non-compressible media such as water. Gaseous andvaporous media are compressible, so one must account for density changes through the flow pathusing a correction factor, the so-called expansion factor Y. If one uses the inlet density
ρ
1
and theflow volume
Q
1
at the valve entrance, one arrives at the following equation:
kppQ1Y
v001
= • • ρρ
1
Due to mass conservation during passage of the valve, the inlet flow mass is equal to the outlet flowmass. Due to the pressure-dependent density, the flow volume on the inlet side (
Q
1
) is less than onthe outlet side (
Q
2
). It is a good idea to use the flow mass
&
m=W=W=W
12
.
kppW1Y
v00
= • • ρρρ
11
The expansion factor is less than 1. Therefore, greater 
k
v
values are required than for liquids withthe same operating and materials data.Due to additional limiting conditions (cavitation, speed of sound), this correction factor is not the onlyone. The equations required are contained in Parts 2-1 and 2-2 of the DIN IEC 534 standard. Due tothe non-perspicuous form used there, the unit-independent form has always been selected here, andone basic equation is used for liquids and gases/vapors.
3.2.DIN IEC 534 P. 2-1, 2-2 and 2-3
These parts are important for the sizing of a control valve with respect to flow capacity.Part 2-1(2-2): Determination of flow capacity (
k
v
value) or flow Q (W)Part 2-3: Test procedure for experimental determination of the
k
v
value.The basic equation mentioned earlier is:
 
kppQ1FFY=1000 kg/m3andp1 ba
v001PR00
= • • =ρρρ
1
,
max
ppwith
The correction factors
F F and Y
PR
take into account the following influences:Flow limitation:
p
max
, velocity throttling pointThe influence of pipeline geometry:
F
P
Expansion factor: YViscosity influence:
F
R
3.2.1.Pipeline geometry factor 
F
P
The
k
v
valve value relates to a continuous, straight pipeline in front of and behind the valve. Thepressure reduction points relate to minimum distances of 2 nominal valve sizes in front of and 6nominal valve sizes behind the valve, in order to minimize the inflow and outflow effects of the flow.However, if the valve is connected to the rest of the pipeline system with fittings, it must be seen as aunit by the system planner, i.e. the
k
v
then refers to the valve with fittings. The valve manufacturer,however, is less interested in the
k
v
value with pipe extension than in the
k
v
value of the valve.This is why the pipeline geometry factor 
F
P
is introduced. It represents the relation between thesetwo
k
v
values. It can be estimated by applying the energy equation for the individual fittings. Moreexact values can only be obtained by measurements (DIN IEC 534 P. 2-3).The
F
P
value is less than 1 and decreases above all for valves with higher specific flow outlet (
k/D
vN
2
), i.e. for butterfly valves and ball valves. Linear control valves can usually be calculatedwell with
F=1
P
.
F=kk1
Pv,with pipe extensionv

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