MSc (Engg) in APD 2 FT07
This research is aimed to deliver an aerodynamicallyimproved bus design with user oriented exterior styling. The popular Volvo 9400 bus was evaluated for its aerodynamic performance and guidelines for better aerodynamics werecollected from literature survey. Based on these guidelinesand user study concepts were generated. The model wasanalyzed using fluent and improvements in drag values were predicted.
Edwin J Saltzman and Robert R Meyer  carried outstudies on reducing the drag of trucks and buses. The finalmodel equipped with rounded horizontal and verticalcorners, smoothed under body and a boat tail achieved Cdvalue of 0.242. Ludovico Consano and Davide Lucarelli at IVECO truck building company came up with anaerodynamically efficient truck. They paid particular attention on the corner surfaces of the vehicle. A higher andsmoother roof has been designed with DAM fully integratedinto the frontal bumper. Moreover the lateral lowered sideskirts have been added to mask the tanks, rear wheels andaxles. To prevent flow detachment, many rounded surfaceshave been added to the exposed surfaces, such as the roof window, side mirrors, sun visor, etc. The test resultsrevealed a fuel reduction of 8%. R. Mc Callen, K. Salari, J.et al  in their experiments found out removal of rear viewmirror alone will bring down the drag of the vehicle by4.5%. Any gap in the vehicle body will result in flowseparation and flow circulation. A Gilhaus  investigationreveled a reduction in drag value until the front leading edgeradii value reaches 150 mm. Further increase in the radiusdid not affect the drag value of the bus. C W Carr investigated the effects of streamlining the front end of therectangular bodies in ground proximity. Experiments showna stream lined front end with low leading edge resulted in adrag coefficient of 0.21. W H huco and H J Emmelmann found that detailed shape optimisation of parts such as roof radii, rain channels, headlights will result in reduction of drag force. W T mason and P S Beebe  carried outexperiments using horizontal and vertical splitter panelsextending from vehicle body at the rear end, vanes and nonventilated cavities close to vehicle bodies. Splitter panelshad no affect on the drag value and the vane arrangementincreased the drag. The addition of non ventilated cavitiesreduced the drag coefficient by 5%.
2. Product Survey
Under AIS-052 code of practice for bus body designand approval, present intercity buses comes under type 3 and4. These are designed and constructed for long distance passenger transport, exclusively designed for comfort of seated passengers and not intended for carrying standing passengers. Type 4 buses are special purpose busesexclusively sleeper coaches which are getting popularized inthese days. Intercity buses are classified according to theoccupancy level as medium capacity buses as it can carry 35to 50 passengers. Intercity buses are again classifiedaccording to the comfort level as non deluxe bus (NDX),semi deluxe bus (SDX), deluxe bus (DLX) and A/C deluxe bus (ACX).
Non Deluxe Bus is designed for basic minimumcomfort level. Semi Deluxe Bus is designed for a slightlyhigher comfort level and with provision for ergonomicallydesigned seats. Deluxe Bus is designed for a high comfortlevel and individual seats and adjustable seat backs,improved ventilation and pleasing interiors. A.C. DeluxeBus is Deluxe Bus which is air conditioned. The presentintercity buses operate in India mainly comes under thedeluxe and A/C deluxe class.The main parts which defines the exterior styling of anintercity bus are the windshield, grill, front bumper,headlights, indicators, wipers, side windows, passenger doors, driver door, luggage space, engine space, back windshield, number plate, brake light, back indicator, back bumper and radiator grill. Interior of the bus consists of
driver’s cabin and passenger compartment. The driver’s
cabin consists of seating for the driver, his assistant, dash board and steering. The passenger compartment consists of rows of seats or beads according to the type of bus. All theintercity buses are high floor buses with a floor height of 1200 mm from the road. Luggage space is provided under the floor with opening from both the side of the bus. Four steps are provided for boarding the bus. In most of the present bus design the passenger door is located at the frontside corner of the bus.Manufacturing of intercity buses are carried out in twostages. The OEM manufactures drive away chassis of the bus which include the engine, transmission and chassis of the vehicle. The bodies of the buses are manufactured by body building companies. In order to regulate the design of the bus coaches, Indian Ministry of Shipping, RoadTransport & Highways introduced the standard AIS-052which was published in September 2001. The major ruleswhich are to be considered while designing an intercity busare listed belowParameters RegulationsWidth of the bus Shall not exceed 2.6 mLength of the bus Maximum 12 meters for transportvehicle with rigid frame havingtwo or more axles,Gangway Minimum of 1800 mm height and300 mm wideService doors Minimum 1Width of door Minimum 650 mmHeight of service door Minimum 1650 mmWidth of windows Minimum 550 mm (sliding typeexcept for ACX)Emergency exit 2 numbers ( 1 at front half opposite to service door next oneat rear with area not less than4000 cm
)Height of first step 425 mm maximumHeight of secondsteps350 mm maximumIntrusion above seat 100 mm at height 1350 fromfloor Wheel arch intrusion 200 mm from the seat front
Table 1 bus regulations as per AIS - 052