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English History

English History

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Published by Octavius_1993
This document provides a short summary of the history of England from 1066 to 1901. The aim is to present the traditional history of England as it may have been taught to our grandparents, before history teaching in England began to focus more on world history. Information is organised chronologically by reigning monarch, and a list of well-known battles is also supplied.
This document provides a short summary of the history of England from 1066 to 1901. The aim is to present the traditional history of England as it may have been taught to our grandparents, before history teaching in England began to focus more on world history. Information is organised chronologically by reigning monarch, and a list of well-known battles is also supplied.

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Published by: Octavius_1993 on Oct 13, 2013
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History of England 1066
1901
Introduction
School history in England tends to focus away from Britain towards America, Germany and Russia, toname just a few. This is not necessarily a bad thing: big countries and big events which shaped themodern world have a massive place in the teaching of history. However, this approach leaves somestudents feeling that they missed out slightly on
traditional 
English history which their grandparentswere taught.There are sources of much greater and reliable information on the history of England, Great Britainand Ireland in existence. I might mention the BBC radio series
This Sceptred Isle.
Whilst a fantasticresource, this does not provide a quick summary of what some people might consider the key facts.In this document I have taken information, primarily from Wikipedia, and organised it into asummary organised by the reigning monarch. Whilst this is not particularly useful for later history(18
th
and 19
th
century) it does reflect the traditional approach to the study of the history of England.The reliability of the information is not guaranteed. Whilst Wikipedia occasionally containserroneous information, any errors here are almost certainly due to my miscopying information ormis-in
terpreting a long paragraph I didn’t want to read.
 Whilst the focus of the document is on English history, no history summary would be complete if itignored all external factors. Bearing in mind that the histories of Wales, Scotland and Ireland areinextricably linked with that of England, and that the histories of France, the Americas, India, etc.have all had a bearing on English history, I have taken the decision to look for
important 
events,rather than those which are purely English or British.
House of Normandy
William I (1066
1087)
 
Quite famous for conquering England, Battle of Hastings, etc.
 
Crowned Christmas day 1066
 
Ordered compilation of Domesday Book in 1086
William II (1087
1100)
 
Second son of William the Conqueror (Normandy went to first son Robert)
 
Killed by an arrow whilst hunting in the New Forest in mysterious circumstances
Henry I (1100
1135)
 
Fourth son of William the Conqueror
 
Fought his brother Robert for control of Normandy (and won)
 
Son, William, died in 1120 in the White Ship disaster; and consequently he declared his
daughter, Matilda, as heir. But it didn’t work out like that ...
 
 
House of Blois
Stephen (1135
1154)
 
Seized throne despite wish of Henry I for Matilda to be queen. Stephen was a grandson of William the Conqueror
 
Matilda and Robert of Gloucester invaded in 1139 sparking the Anarchy
 
His son, Eustace, died, and he accepted Henry (Matilda’s son) as heir
 
House of Plantagenet 
Henry II (1154
1189)
 
Son of Matilda and Geoffrey of Anjou
 
Married Eleanor of Aquitaine and came to control the Angevin Empire (from the Pyrenees toIreland)
 
Strengthened control over Wales and parts of France
 
Conflict with Thomas Becket (who died in 1170)
 
Children (Henry the Young King (died), Richard and John) and wife began to rebel againsthim, eventually defeated by son Richard allied with Philip of France
Richard I (1189
1199)
 
Central commander in 3
rd
Crusade
 
Conquered Cyprus but failed to take Jerusalem
John (1199
1216)
 
Fifth son of Henry II
 
Lost much of Angevin Empire in France, including Normandy
 
Agreed to Magna Carta in 1215, during civil war with barons
(First Barons’ War)
 
 
Louis VIII of France seized throne after death and ruled for a year
Henry III (1216
1272)
 
Son of John
 
Ruled as child with William Marshall as Regent
 
Barons under Simon de Montfort rebelled and imprisoned Henry
(Second Barons’ War)
 
 
Parliament called under de Montfort’s leadership
 
 
Edward, Henry’s son,
aided by Roger Mortimer returned and defeated de Montfort atEvesham (1265)
Edward I (1272
1307)
 
Son of Henry III, returned from Ninth Crusade to take up throne
 
Conquered Wales
 
Invaded Scotland and took the Stone of Destiny
 
Expelled Jewish population
 
Began to use Parliament as a source of revenue
 
Scottish under Robert the Bruce rebelled
 
Edward II (1307
1327)
 
Son of Edward I, first Prince of Wales
 
Barons objected to Edward’s favourite (Gaveston) and killed him
 
 
Decisively defeated by Robert the Bruce at Bannockburn (1314)
 
New favourite, Despenser
 
Deposed by his wife Isabella , and Roger Mortimer. Abdicated and was murdered.
Edward III (1327
1377)
 
Son of Edward II. Led coup against Mortimer at 17
 
Resumed conflict with Scotland, but later made peace
 
French King confiscated Aquitaine, triggering Hundred Years’ War
 
 
Invaded France and was victorious at Crecy (1346). An English army also defeated the Scotsshortly afterward
 
Black Death (1348)
 
The Black Prince achieved victory at Poitiers (1356)
Richard II (1377
1399)
 
Grandson of Edward III (who outlived his son, the Black Prince)
 
Influenced by John of Gaunt (third son of Edward III)
 
Peasants’ Revolt (1381)
 
 
After Gaunt’s death in 1399 disinherited Gaunt’s son Henry Bolingbroke, who invaded and
deposed Richard, Richard then died in mysterious circumstances
House of Lancaster
Henry IV (1399
1413)
 
Son of John of Gaunt, third son of Edward III
 
Faced a series of rebellions (
Owain Glyndŵr
in Wales and Henry Percy in England)
 
Right to throne was in doubt
Henry V (1413
1422)
 
Son of Henry IV, gained military experience fighting rebellions against his father
 
Resumed conflict in France and achieved victory at Agincourt (1415)
 
Captured Rouen and reached the gates of Paris, was recognised as King of France
 
Died suddenly on a subsequent campaign (possible dysentery)
Henry VI (1422
1461 and 1470 - 1471)
 
Son of Henry V, a child King (regents governed until 1437)
 
Pursued peace in France, after Joan of Arc achieved victories
 
Married Margaret of Anjou, seceding Maine and Anjou to France
 
Unpopularity due to weakness abroad and support for Duke of Suffolk and Beaufort, Earl of Somerset
 
Rebellion of Jake Cade (ultimately unsuccessful)

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