Welcome to Scribd, the world's digital library. Read, publish, and share books and documents. See more
Download
Standard view
Full view
of .
Look up keyword
Like this
18Activity
0 of .
Results for:
No results containing your search query
P. 1
Nature of Job Discrimination

Nature of Job Discrimination

Ratings: (0)|Views: 1,268|Likes:
Published by simply_coool

More info:

Published by: simply_coool on Jul 23, 2009
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

Availability:

Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd
See more
See less

01/03/2013

pdf

text

original

 
LESSON 16:
NA
TURE OF JOB DISCRIMINATION
UNIT III
BUSINESS AND ITS INTERNAL
CONSTITUENCIESCHAPTER 4:
ETHICS OF JOB DISCRIMINA
TION
 We often find people debating on these words “justice,”“equality,” “racism,” “rights,” and “discrimination”. Till now wehave discussed in depth the words “justice,” “equality” and“rights”. In this lecture we will discuss about “racism” and“discrimination”. Lets understand what is the hue and cry allabout.Points to be covered in this lecture:
Racism
Discrimination; types of discriminationFirst of all lets understand the meaning of these words:
Racism:
the prejudice that members of one race are intrinsically superior tomembers of other races or,Discriminatory or abusive behavior towards members of another race.
Discrimination:
The root meaning of the term “discriminate” is“to distinguish one ob-ject from another,” a morally neutral andnot necessarily wrongful activity. However, in modern usage theterm is not morally neutral. It is usually in-tended to refer to the wrongful act of distinguishing illicitly among people not on thebasis of individual merit but on the basis of prejudice or someother invidious or morally reprehensible attitude. This morally charged notion of “invidious” discrimination, as it applies toemployment, is what is at issue in this chapter.In this sense to discriminate in employment is to make an ad- verse decision (or set of decisions) against employees (orprospective em-ployees) who belong to a certain class because of morally unjustified prejudice toward members of that class.Discrimination in employment thus, must involve three basicelements:1. First, it is a decision against one or more employees (orprospective employees) that is not based on individual meritsuch as the ability to perform a given job, seniority, or othermorally legiti-mate qualifications.2. Second, the decision derives solely or in part from racial orsexual prejudice, from false stereotypes, or from some otherkind of morally unjustified attitude against members of theclass to which the em-ployee belongs.3. Third, the decision (or set of decisions) has a harmful or neg-ative impact on the interests of the employees, perhapscosting them jobs, promotions, or better pay.
Types of discrimination
Racism
On the basis of Gender
On the basis of Age
On the basis of Religion
On the basis of disability 
On the basis of National origin.
Present Scenario of Job Discrimination
 Although many more women and minorities are entering formerly male dominated jobs, they still face problems that they  would characterize as form of discrimination. In 1993, forexample, ABC sent a male and female, Avnish and Neelam, onan “experiment” to apply in person for jobs several companies were advertising. Avnish and Neelam were both trim, neatly dressed college graduates in their 20s, with identical resumesindicating management experience. Unknown to the companies,however, both were secretly wired for sound and had hiddencameras. One company indicated in its help-wanted ad that it hadseveral open positions. But when the company recruiter spoke with Neelam, the only job he brought up was a job answering phones. A few minutes later, the same recruiterspoke with Avnish. He was offered a management job. Wheninterviewed afterwards by ABC, the company recruiterindicated that he would never want a man answering his phone. Another company had advertised positions as territory manag-ers for lawn-care services. The owner of that company gaveNeelam a typing test, discussed her fiance’s business with her,and then offered her a job as a receptionist at $6 an hour. Whenthe owner interviewed Avnish, however, he gave him an aptitudetest, chatted with him about how he kept fit, and offered him ajob as territory manager paying $300 to $500 a week. When theowner was later interviewed by ABC he comments that women“do not do well as territory managers, which involves somephys-ical labor.” According to the owner he had also hired oneother woman as a receptionist and had hired several other malesas territory managers. The experience of young Avnish and Neelam suggest thatsexual discrimina-tion is alive and well. Similar experimentssuggest that racial discrimination also continues to thrive. In1993 researchers at the Urban Institute published a study in which they paired several young black men with similar young  white men, matching them in openness, energy level, articulate-ness, physical char-acteristics, clothing, and job experience.In the same way, young Hispanic males fluent in English werematched with young Anglo males. Each member of each pair was trained and coached in mock interviews to act exactly like theother. Each member of each pair then applied in person for thesame jobs, ranging from general laborer to management traineein manufacturing, hotels, restaurants, retail sales, and office work. In spite of the fact that all were equally qualified for thesame jobs, blacks and Hispanics were offered jobs 50 percentfewer times than the young white males. The root meaning of the term “discriminate” is “to distinguishone ob-ject from another,” a morally neutral and not necessarily  wrongful activity. However, in modem usage the term is notmorally neutral: It is usually in-tended to refer to the wrongfulact of distinguishing illicitly among people not on the basis of individual merit but on the basis of prejudice or some other
48 11.292
 
invidious or morally reprehensible attitude. This morally chargednotion of “invidious” discrimination, as it applies toemployment, is what is at issue in this chapter. In this sense todiscriminate in employment is to make an ad-verse decision (orset of decisions) against employees (or prospective em-ployees) who belong to a certain class because of morally unjustifiedprejudice toward members of that class.Discrimination in employment thus, must involve three basicelements. First, it is a decision against one or more employees(or prospective employees) that is not based on individual meritsuch as the ability to perform a given job, seniority, or othermorally legiti-mate qualifications. Second, the decision derivessolely or in part from racial or sexual prejudice, from falsestereotypes, or from some other kind of morally unjustifiedattitude against members of the class to which the em-ployeebelongs. Third, the decision (or set of decisions) has a harmful orneg-ative impact on the interests of the employees, perhapscosting them jobs, promotions, or better pay.
Forms of Discrimination: Intentional and
Institutional Aspects
 A helpful framework for analyzing different forms of discrimi-nation can be constructed by distinguishing the extent to which adiscriminatory act is in-tentional and isolated (or non institu-tionalized) and the extent to which it is un-intentional andinstitutionalized
1. Isolated and Intentional Discrimination
 A discriminatory act may be part of the isolated (noninstitutionalized) behavior of a single individual whointentionally and knowingly discriminates out of personalprejudice. In the ABC “experi-ment” described, for example,the attitudes that the male interviewer is de-scribed as having may not be characteristic of other company interviewers: Hisbehavior toward female job seekers may be an intentionalbut isolated instance of sexism in hiring.
2. Institutionalized and Intentional Discrimination
Second,a discriminatory act may be part of the routine behavior of aninstitutionalized group, which intentionally and knowingly dis-criminates out of the personal prejudices of its members. The Ku Klux Klan, for example, is an organization thathistorically has intentionally institutional-ized discriminatory behavior, and, in India, for example, TheMuthut Finance group prefers Keralites for any post in theircompany.
3. Isolated and Unintentional Discrimination
 Third, an act of discrimination may be part of the isolated(non institutionalized) behavior of a single individual whounin-tentionally and unknowingly discriminates againstsomeone because he or she unthinkingly adopts the traditionalpractices and stereotypes of his or her so-ciety. If theinterviewer quoted in the ABC experiment described, forexample, acted unintentionally, then he would fall into thisthird category.
4. Institutionalized and Unintentional discrimination
Fourth, a dis-criminatory act may be part of the systematicroutine of a corporate organiza-tion or group thatunintentionally incorporates into its formal institutionalizedprocedures practices that discriminate against women orminorities. The two companies examined in the ABC;experiment, for example, described organi-zations in whichthe best-paying jobs are routinely assigned to men and the worst-paying jobs are routinely assigned to women, on thestereotypical as-sumption that women are fit for some jobsand not for others. There may be no deliberate intent todiscriminate, but the effect is the same: a racially or sex-ually based pattern of preference toward white males.Historically, there has been a shift in emphasis from seeing discrimina-tion primarily as an intentional and individual matter,to seeing it as a sys-tematic and not necessarily inten- tionalfeature of institutionalized corporate behavior, and back again,in some quarters, to seeing it as an intentional and individualmatter. During the early 1960s, employment discrimination wasseen primarily as an intentional, calculated act performed by oneindividual on another. Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964,for example, seems to have had this notion of discrimination inmind when it stated:It shall be an unlawful employment practice for an employer1. To fail or refuse to hire or to discharge any individual, orotherwise discriminate against any in-dividual with respect tohis compensation, terms, conditions, or privileges of em-ployment because of such individual’s race, color, religion,sex, or national origin; or2. To limit, segregate, or classify his employees or applicants forem-ployment in any way that would deprive or tend todeprive any individual of employment opportunities orotherwise adversely affect his status as an em-ployee becauseof such individual’s race, color, sex, or national originHowever, in the late 1960s, the concept of discrimination wasenlarged to in-clude more than the traditionally recognizedintentional forms of individual discrimination. By the early 1970, the term “discrimination” was being used regularly toinclude disparities of minority representation within the ranksof a firm, regardless of whether or not the disparity had beenintentionally cre-ated. An organization was engaged in discrimi-nation if minority group repre-sentation within its ranks wasnot proportionate to the group’s local availability. The discrimi-nation would be remedied when the proportions of minorities within the organization were made to match their proportionsin the available workforce by the use of “affirmative action”programs.
Overview
Racism refers to the prejudice that members of one race areintrinsically superior to members of other races.
Discrimination (employment) is the wrongful act of distinguishing illicitly among people not on the basis of individual merit but on the basis of prejudice or some otherinvidious or morally reprehensible attitude.
Activity
Discuss in general the qualities that make a person suitable for ajob. Why do you think we see job discrimination?
11.292 49

Activity (18)

You've already reviewed this. Edit your review.
1 hundred reads
1 thousand reads
Sonali Choudhary liked this
saad_sheikh_1 liked this
saad_sheikh_1 liked this
shikhajindal89 liked this
shikhajindal89 liked this
Chandan Saharan liked this
Prashant Singh liked this

You're Reading a Free Preview

Download
scribd
/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->