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Hispanic Heritage Last Version True and Last One Corrected

Hispanic Heritage Last Version True and Last One Corrected

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Published by: vomeditor on Oct 15, 2013
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 HIGHLIGHTING HISPANIC CONTRIBUTIONS TO AMERICADr. Lino García, Jr.On October 12, 1492, Cristóbal Colón and his Spanish crew aboard three ships
 “La Pinta, La Niña”, and “La Santa María”, sailed from the mother country of Spain
and landed on what later became known as America. Thus began the colonization of the New World,
later on known as “La Nueva España”. These efforts by the Spanish
authorities were so huge, so impressive in their methods, so widespread, andmarvelously designed that no other nation since has, indeed, emerged to equal thesplendor of this adventure into newfound lands.
Cristóbal Colón’s “Diario de Abordo”, a narrative that detailed his encounters
in America, its people, its wonders to behold, and sent to King Fernando, alerted theSpanish Crown of the huge possibilities for new treasures, as well for an opportunity
to spread “La Santa Fe” into new areas. New expeditions, almost all of them self 
-
financed, soon made their way to “La Nueva España”, thus in essence giving start to
the first phase of this huge enterprise.
 
THE SPANISH EXPLORATION AND CONQUEST OF THE AMERICASThe first phase entailed the bringing of the Hispanic people to these lands.Thus, any individual in the Americas presently enjoying a Spanish surname, orpartaking of the Hispanic culture can proudly identify with this glorious adventure ,with its undertakings, and with its huge contributions throughout the centuries.Captain Hernán Cortés and his crew of Spanish soldiers landed in present day Veracruz, México in 1519, and having made friends with the Tlaxcaltecan Indians,and hearing of the vast richness of the Aztec Empire, ventured through and madetheir way to its capital: Tenochtitlan. After having met Muctezuma, the Emperor of the Aztecs, Hernán Cortés had a few elements on his side that gave him the
 
advantage over such a huge empire. One was his mistress and Indian interpreterDoña Malinche, the other was the belief among Aztec that a Fair God would one daycome from afar to conquer them, and the third element was the Aztecs, so isolatedwithin themselves for centuries, that they were petrified to see men on horseback and carrying rifles. They were simply overwhelmed by the new intruders into theirland. Hernán Cortes took advantage of all of these elements that destiny hasbestowed on so few men in history to conquer a nation. He lat
er wrote his “Cartasde Relación”, a series of five letter to King Carlos I in which he detailed his
encounter with Muctezuma, describing the new land, and its people, and when theconquest was finally accomplished in 1521, the second phase of this huge enterprisebegan.
 
THE SPANISH COLONIZATION OF THE AMERICASEfforts were started immediately by the Spanish Crown to send huge
expeditions into “La Nueva España”, to explore and colonize in the name of the King
of Spain all lands encountered by its Spanish so
ldiers. A “Casa de Contratación” was
initiated in Sevilla, Spain to handle all activities dealing with this new phase of Spanish expansion, so huge an undertaking never seen before in the annals of history. A new social, cultural order soon replaced the Indian empire, andrepresentatives of the King of Spain, known as Viceroys, were sent over to look over
and administered so huge an empire. An “Encomienda System” was established tooversee the work done by Indians, and headed by an “adelantado” or “mayordomo”,
who took charge of working the many mines of silver and gold. Following each ship
load of Spanish individuals heading to “hacer las Américas” came young clergymen
fresh from the best universities in Europe to dedicate their entire lives to theChristianization of the Indian population now subjects of the King of Spain, and asdecreed by the Spanish Crown. This vast colonization during which time the SpanishCulture, with all of its wonders, that included religion, the Spanish language, theHispanic traditions, and the genetic makeup of the Spanish people that includeddifferent ethnic groups that made the Spain of that time: Celtic, Visigoths, Romans,Greek, Iberian, Jewish, Basque and Arab genetic melting pot all made their way tothe Americas and that is what the present day Hispanic carry proudly in their veins,
 
their looks, culture, and traditions, along with the later on acquired Indian heritage.The colonization effort lasted until 1821, when Mexico and the lands comprisingalmost two thirds of present day USA, to include Texas, New Mexico, California,Nevada, Colorado, Arizona, and certain areas north, obtained their Independencefrom Spain. Before that date, the present state of Texas had been mapped byCaptain Alonso de Pineda in 1519 who traveled along the coast of Texas, but neverlanded. The distinction of being the first Hispanics to land on Texas soil belongs to Alvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca, who along with Spanish soldiers were the first to landon Texas soil on November 6, 1528; thus starting the systematic colonization of Texas by Hispanics. Beginning in the early 18
th
century, civilized life, with all of itsamenities, cattle drives, farming, hospitals, schools, ranching, banking, and all otheractivities were part of Texas Hispanic life, now known as Tejanos. One importantissue to note is the effective Hispanic participation in the American Revolution of 1776, given that many Hispanics served, helped out with finances, and Tejano cattlebarons such as the Seguín, the Flores, and other prominent Tejano ranchers herdedtheir cattle to the shores to help feed the hungry soldiers fighting the British Army,and in essence distinguishing themselves as true patriots in the fight against
England. General Bernardo de Gálvez made his famous “Marcha de Gálvez” in the
south that helped defeat the British, and assuring the victory of Americans againsta common enemy. Since the start of the Republic, whenever there has been astruggle involving the USA, one can be sure, the Hispanic individual has been thereor will be there defending this country.
 
THE STRUGGLE FOR INDEPENDENCE FROM SPAIN
Indeed, when Padre Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla proclaimed his “ El Grito” for
Independence on September 16,1810, this also resonated and liberated Hispanicseverywhere in the Southwestern part of present day USA. Two skirmishes in support
of Hidalgo’s cry for freedom occurred on Texas soil , led by Hispanics: a) the “de lasCasas Rebellion” of 1811; and the “Battle of Medina of 1813”; these two revolts lead
in sentiment and framework toward the Battle of the Alamo of 1836 helping toliberate Texans of all persuasions. The Independence Movement also arrived inTexas and other states in 1821 and soon after Northerners were permitted to enter

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