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Epoche (suspension of belief)

Epoche (suspension of belief)

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Published by John Uebersax
Epoche - suspension of belief; from '10 Essential Greek Philosophical Terms'
Epoche - suspension of belief; from '10 Essential Greek Philosophical Terms'

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Published by: John Uebersax on Oct 15, 2013
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05/30/2014

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εποχη
 Explanation
l
Here we have not a single word, but a constellation of related terms that also includes
aporia
(astate of 'puzzlement'),
elenchus
(investigation by question and answer), and
 skeptikos
(an attitudeof undogmatic investigation). All these relate in a most central way to the mission of Socrates: tocall attention to the perils of 
 false opinion
(or, more accurately, false opining, the process of forming false opinions) and to propose remedies.
l
False opining, or 
 pseudodoxia
, is an absolutely fundamental problem with human nature, a near universal source of our errors and unhappiness:
 
Then do you note that mistakes in action also are due to this ignorance of 
thinking one knows when one does not
? (Plato,
1st Alcibiades
117d)
l
This
conceit of knowledge
is described more fully in Plato's dialogue,
 Laws
:"The greatest evil to men, generally, is one which is innate in their souls, and whicha man is always excusing in himself and so has no way of escaping. I mean what isexpressed in the saying that every man is and ought to be dear to himself.... Fromthis same fault arises the common habit of regarding our own ignorance (
amathia
)as wisdom, and of 
thinking we know all things when, so to speak, we reallyknow nothing
." (
 Laws
5.731d)This ignorance, a result of inordinate self-love, egoism, and wishful thinking (by which desires co-opt and distort reasoning) is the very opposite of the intellectual humility required to'know thyself'.
l
As noted, many of our personal problems are the direct result of false opinion. For example, falseopinions about bad things -- that they exist, that they are likely to happen, that they would actuallyharm us -- are the basis of endless worry, anxiety, fear and hatred. False opinions about presumedgoods -- that they are good, that they are what we really want, etc., beget endless folly, wastedeffort, frustration, etc.
l
Due to its connection with fear and desire, false opinion contributes to mental disturbance, thusopposing the attainment of mental tranqility,
ataraxia
.
l
Several strategies exist to rid oneself of false opinion, including:1.A habit of suspending judgment (
epoche
). ThePyrhhonic Skepticsraised this to the level of a fine art.Sextus Empiricus, for example, presents several formulaic sentences one can telloneself to counter false opinion. For example, when one catches oneself holding an opinionwithout basis, or mistaking an opinion for a fact, one may say:"For every argument in favor of this view, an equally strong argument can be made against it. Hence I conclude nothing at this time." (
Outlines of  Pyrrhonism
, 1.27)2.One can approach questions with a
dialectical attitude
. That is, rather than simplyaccepting a received opinion, one always strives to understand problems in terms of their first principles, and then to logically deduce true opinions from these solid foundations. With
Transliteration:
epoche
or 
epoché
Definition:suspension of judgmentPronunciation:eh-poh-chay' (hear )
 
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