ISSN 1062-3604, Russian Journal of Developmental Biology, 2009, Vol. 40, No. 4, pp. 204–211. © Pleiades Publishing, Inc., 2009.Original Russian Text © S.N. Novikov, G.A. Churakov, A.A. Philimonenko, I.I. Ermakova, E.M. Fedorova, I.A. Burkot, 2009, published in Ontogenez, 2009, Vol. 40, No. 4, pp. 261–269.
One of the most mysterious sides in the life activity of various rodents is associated with the phenomenon of “physiological proteinuria” (Parfentjev, 1932). Despite thefact that the molecular-genetic basis and physiologicalmechanisms of the phenomenon itself were studied in detail(Hastie et al., 1979; Berger, Szoka, 1981; Knopf et al., 1983;Kuhn et al., 1984; McIntosh, Bishop, 1989; Al-Shavi et al.,1992), the functional meaning of the sharply raised level of protein excretion in urine remained until recently the mostdifﬁcult puzzle in the biology of this numerous systematicgroup.The ﬁrst reports regarding a possible regulatory role of proteins found in urine of the house mouse, and particu-larly of MUP (major urinary protein) complex fractions, inthe processes of intrapopulation informational exchangevia pheromones appeared in the beginning of the 1990th(Böcskei et al., 1992; Bacchini et al., 1992; Churakov et al.,1992; Robertson et al., 1993). These data caused manydetailed experimental and population genetic investigationsof the structural and functional features of MUPs fractions(Robertson et al., 1996, 1997; Utsumi et al., 1999; Chura-kov, Novikov, 2000; Marchlewska-Koj et al., 2000; Baba-lyan, Novikov, 2001; Hurst et al., 2001, 2005; Marie et al.,2001; Timm et al., 2001; Daev, Sverdlova, 2002; Sharrow etal., 2002, 2005; Novikov, 2003; Armstrong et al., 2005;
The work was supported by the Russian Foundation for BasicResearch (projects no. 02-04-49273, 04-04-63050).
The article was translated by the authors.
Cavaggioni et al., 2006; Macek et al., 2006; More, 2006;Stopkova et al., 2007).It is an accepted hypothesis that excretion of MUPswith urine is typical for males and is directly linked to theandrogenic status of an organism (Szoka, Paigen, 1978,1979; Berger, Szoka, 1981; Hayakawa et al., 1983).Meanwhile, as we have demonstrated earlier, in laboratorymice the qualitative composition of MUPs of castratedmales is identical to that of females, and the MUPs patternis determined genetically (Churakov, Novikov, 2000).These data allow us to put forward a question about therole of genetic and age-related factors in the establishmentof sex differences in MUPs composition during postnatalontogenesis of the laboratory mouse.The aim of our research was to perform a comparativequantitative analysis of MUPs expression between malesand females of laboratory mice of two genotypes duringthe pre- and postpubertal periods of ontogenesis.MATERIALS AND METHODSThe experiments were performed using males andfemales of two highly inbred and genealogically unrelatedlaboratory mice strains, CBA/LacY and C57BL/6JY (
=102). Animals were kept in groups of 4–6 individuals instandard polypropylene cages T-2 (“Velaz”, Czech Repub-lic) in the inverted light cycle conditions (day—12 h,night—12 h). Our experiments were performed in spring.
The Pattern of Major Urinary Proteins (MUPS) Expressionduring Postnatal Ontogenesis of the Laboratory Mouse Dependson Genotype and Sex
S. N. Novikov, G. A. Churakov, A. A. Philimonenko, I. I. Ermakova,E. M. Fedorova, and I. A. Burkot
I.P. Pavlov Institute of Physiology, Russian Academy of Sciences, Saint Petersburg, nab. Makarova, 6, 199034 Russia
Received June 8, 2007; in ﬁnal form, November 12, 2008
—We investigated the speciﬁc pattern of major urinary proteins (MUPs) expression in 3-, 4-, and12-week old mice of CBA/LacY and C57BL/6JY inbred strains using polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis.Quantitative evaluation of 8 protein fractions A-H with regard to sex, age, and genotype of the animals is pre-sented for the ﬁrst time. Actual problems of genetic control and neuroendocrine regulation of MUPs expressionduring ontogenesis are discussed. In the light of current views on MUPs as a key component in intrapopulationinformation exchange via pheromones, we put forward the idea that the genetically determined structure of theolfactory code of the deﬁnitive type is formed at an early ontogenetic stage on the basis of the MUPs combina-torial pattern.
: pre- and postpubertal periods, laboratory mice, major urinary proteins, sex differences, phero-mones, olfactory image, MUPs combinatorial pattern, structure of the olfactory code.