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Published by Icyfrost Chow

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Published by: Icyfrost Chow on Oct 15, 2013
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 AACS5164 Distributed Computer Systems
Tutorial 2
Q1. Compare divisible process with indivisible process. (6 marks)Indivisible processes-Entire process must be assign to a single processor -Not able to take advantage of theadditional resources available in a distributed and parallel environment.Divisible processes-a process may be subdivided into smaller sub-processes, tasks, or threads.Q2. Differentiate kernel-level support threads with user level support threads. (8 marks)Table = number of entry flexible Table =number of entry fixTable = number of entry flexible Table =number of entry fixRun faster kernel trap (doesn’t involve OS,noRun faster kernel trap (doesn’t involveOS, noType of 
scheduling Under control fully control bykernelType of 
scheduling Under control fully control by kernelIf 1 state thread of process block then whole process been block (not suitable in use where systemalways been block)1) Operating system has the knowledge of existence of kernel level threads while it doesnot know about the existence of user-level threads.2) Suppose a process P1 has 2 kernel level threads and P2 has 2 user-level threads. If onethread in P1gets blocked, its second thread is not affected. But in case of P2 if one threadis blocked (say for I/O), the whole process P2 along with the 2nd thread gets blocked.3) Kernel level threads are slower to create compared to user-level threads.4) Switching in Kernel level thread involves OS scheduler while in user-level threads OSscheduler is not involved.5) Context switching between kernel level threads has high overhead, almost the same asa process. Context switching between user-level threads has almost no overhead ascompared to kernel level threads.6) Kernel level threads can run on different processors simultaneously while user-levelthreads of a process will run on one processor only even if multiple processors areavailable.7) User level support threads are faster than kernel level support thread than 100times.
 AACS5164 Distributed Computer Systems
Q3.What are the differences between process and thread? (4 marks)1. Threads share the address space of the processthat created itProcesses have their own address.2. Threads have direct access to the data segment of its process;Processes have their own copy of the datasegment of the parent process.3. Threads can directly communicate withother threads of its process with sibling processes. processes must use interprocesscommunication to communicate4. Threads have almost no overheadProcesses have considerable overhead.5. New threads are easily created.new processes require duplication of the parent process6. Threads can exercise considerable control over threads of the same process; processes can only exercise control over child processes.7. Changes to the main thread (cancellation, prioritychange, etc.) may affect the behavior of theother threads of the process; a change to the parent process does notaffect child processes.Q4.ABC Company is going to launch a real time application in its distributed environment. If ahigher protection feature of kernel is required to run that real time application, which kerneltype is the most suitable to be used in ABC company system? Justify your answer.(9 marks)Q5.Your client is interested to run a multithreaded process for a local messenger service in hisdistributed system. The local messenger service should include some extra features tosupport photo sending task, video call task and etc.(i) Which type of multithreaded process paradigm would you suggest to your client tooptimize the use of the local messenger service? Justify your answer.Specialist,client/server/assembly
Specialist paradigm(4 marks) (ii) If the system above is solely used for exchanging messages without any extrafeatures, which type of process paradigm is the most suitable to be used? Justify your answer. (4 marks)Client/Server ParagigmQ6. What are the responsibilities of the process management? (4 marks)Address space contentsRegistersProgram counter Stack pointer State of system call(s)All related threads of executionAll files from the process and their state (open or closed)Q7. How many data type translations are necessary in a heterogeneous environment with sevendifferent architectures without using EDR? With using EDR? (4 marks)

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