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HBL FracPac Completion Service

HBL FracPac Completion Service

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Published by Evence Chen
Hallibuton
Frac
Completion
Hallibuton
Frac
Completion

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Published by: Evence Chen on Oct 15, 2013
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

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08/08/2014

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5
INTRODUCTION
Chapter 2
Rock MechanicsandSandingTendency
Formations that are considered soft orpoorly consolidated are often plaguedby sand production tendencies.Formation sand production results inlost production and plugged gravelpacks, screens, perforations, tubulars,surface flow lines, and separators. Inaddition to damage caused to surfaceequipment by plugging, casing andsurface equipment can erode due toabrasive, sand-laden fluid flow fromthe well. Worst-case sand productionproblems can cause total well failure orthe need for recompletion from casingcollapse, openhole collapse, or both.Conventional treatments for sand-producing wells include gravel packing,sand consolidation, and resin-coated
sand slurries. These treatments minimize
the effect of sanding and are based on
gravel-packing technology, which bridges
the produced fines. This restrictive or
filtrative nature of the gravel pack iseffective for a while, but over time thepermeability of the pack decreases.Permeability damage to the pack causes
a high, positive skin in the near-wellbore
area, which may cause a tremendous
decrease in well productivity.
Figure 2.1
shows the effect that sanding has on agravel pack.Fracturing high-permeability reservoirshas now gained wide acceptance as aneffective method by which to control
 Time
   P  r  o   d  u  c   t   i  v   i   t  y
Apparent GravelPack FailureFracPac TreatmentRegravelPackNormalDecline
Profile of Well Requiring FracPac Services
Figure 2.1
The normal production decline of a well is shown by the red curve.The production decline of a well treated with a conventional gravel pack is depictedby the solid black curve. Even after a second application of gravel packing isperformed, the gravel pack plugs with sand and the well’s production declines
quickly. The dashed curve denotes the production decline after a FracPac treatment.
Productivity is drastically improved initially, and the production decline parallels thenormal decline thereafter.
 
FRACPAC COMPLETION SERVICES
6
sanding and to bypass near-wellbore
damage, stimulatingproduction. From a
rock mechanics perspective, thischapter
focuses on the benefits of performing FracPacCompletion Services for stimulation, sand control, orboth. Topics such as drawdown, in-situ stresses, failuremechanisms, sanding-tendency prediction, tip-screenoutfracturing, and fracture behavior are discussed in detailand show how FracPac procedures can help overcome
production problems caused by sanding.
DRAWDOWN DUE TO FLUID FLOW
A high production rate from a highly permeable reservoircauses a high drawdown across the formation in thevicinity of the wellbore. This drawdown places increaseddeviatory stress on the formation, which, if it exceeds thestrength of the formation, can cause formation failureand resulting sand or fines production.It is important to understand the pressure-drawdowncomponents that contribute to the overall pressure drop
that occurs in the proximity of the
wellbore. In addition tothe energy loss in
Darcian flow, the drawdown must over-
come the following flow impairments:
Radial flow convergence, momentum
effects, andpermeability damage from the near-wellbore stress fieldinduced by drillingWellbore flow impairment, such as partial penetration,perforation, and skin damageDamage farther into the formation caused by drillingmud and fines invasion (damage from drillingand production)The factors listed previously contribute to a largedrawdown within a small area adjacent to the wellbore.In addition to the pressure disturbance acting on the fluidin the pores of the formation, a near-wellbore mechanicalstress-concentration zone is created, which will bediscussed in detail later in this chapter. The effectivestress on the formation (the total stress minus the porepressure) increases significantly near the wellbore, andwith this, the risk of formation failure rises during theearly stages of production. Formation failure can stilloccur at a later time as the reservoir is depleted byproduction; however, if the drawdown is eased at thewellbore, a more stable stress field occurs. Reducingdrawdown is one of the major objectives whenperforming FracPac Completion Services.FracPac Completion Services are designed to create short,wide, and highly conductive fractures that bypass near-wellbore damage, creating a channel from the undamagedformation to the wellbore. Bypassing the near-wellboredamage helps to decrease the drawdown at the wellborefor a given production rate.Two parameters that control the production increase of awell that is hydraulically fractured are fractureconductivity (
) and fracture half length (
L
).Reservoir permeability (
) also must be considered whenfracturing a well. The dimensionless fracture conductivity(
f
) combines the effect of fracture conductivity,fracture half length, and permeability into one formula:
f
ϭ
......................................(2.1)
where
is fracture conductivity (md-ft),
is reservoirpermeability (md), and
L
is fracture half length (ft).
Computer simulations of hydraulically fractured reservoirs,such as those shown in Chapter 4 (Reservoir Engineering)
indicate that in low-permeability reservoirs, productioncan be increased by increasing the fracture length. Inhigh-permeability reservoirs, however, short fracturelengths with high conductivity can be effective. Thereservoir engineering chapter also discusses how it is veryimportant to determine the pressure profile throughoutan entire drainage area to be able to design a FracPactreatment with the following parameters:The fracture length required to bypass the wellboredamage and prevent the severe pressure drop (thisparameter is optimized for either sand control orstimulation)The fracture conductivity required to minimize thepressure drop near the wellboreA FracPac treatment must be carefully designed with a
clear objective: either sand control or stimulation. Although
it is possible to accomplish both, priorities should be setearly in the design process to ensure best results.
IN-SITU STRESSES AROUNDTHE WELLBORE
The in-situ stresses within a reservoir are usually inequilibrium, which allows an undisturbed, stablecondition to exist. If, for any reason, the in-situ forceschange and disturb the stability of the reservoir, a natural
kL

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