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Antioxidant Properties of Food Phenolic

Antioxidant Properties of Food Phenolic

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Categories:Types, Research, Science
Published by: teosohhoon on Jul 24, 2009
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05/20/2013

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8
Antioxidant Propertiesof Food Phenolics
INTRODUCTION
Antioxidants markedly delay or prevent oxidation of the substrate (Halliwell, 1999;Shahidi, 2000), when they are present in foods or in the body at low concentrationscompared to that of an oxidizable substrate. Food manufacturers have used food-gradeantioxidants, mainly of a phenolic nature, to prevent quality deterioration of productsand to maintain their nutritional value. Antioxidants have also been of interest tohealth professionals because they help the body to protect itself against damage causedby reactive oxygen species (ROS) as well as reactive nitrogen species (RNS) andreactive chlorine species (RCS) associated with degenerative diseases(Figure 8.1). Antioxidants act at different levels in the oxidative sequence involving lipidmolecules. They may decrease oxygen concentration, intercept singlet oxygen, pre-vent first-chain initiation by scavenging initial radicals such as hydroxyl radicals,bind metal ion catalysts, decompose primary products of oxidation to nonradicalspecies and break chains to prevent continued hydrogen abstraction from substrates(Shahidi, 2000, 2002).Natural antioxidants from dietary sources include phenolic and polyphenoliccompounds, among others. The mechanism by which these antioxidants exert theireffects may vary depending on the compositional characteristics of the food, includ-ing its minor components. Furthermore, the beneficial health effects of consumingplant foods have been ascribed, in part, to the presence of phenolics, which areassociated with counteracting the risk of cardiovascular diseases, cancer and cataractas well as a number of other degenerative diseases. This is achieved by preventinglipid oxidation, protein cross linking and DNA mutation and, at later stages, tissuedamage(Figure 8.2). Although phenolic compounds and some of their derivatives are very efficientin preventing autoxidation, only a few phenolic compounds are currently allowedas food antioxidants. The major considerations for acceptability of such antioxidantsare their activity and potential toxicity and/or carcinogenicity. The approved phenolicantioxidants have been extensively studied, but the toxicology of their degradationproducts still is not clear.The process of autoxidation of polyunsaturated lipids in food involves a freeradical chain reaction that is generally initiated by exposure of lipids to light, heat,ionizing radiation, metal ions or metalloprotein catalysts. Enzyme lipoxygenase canalso initiate oxidation. The classical route of autoxidation includes initiation (pro-duction of lipid free radicals), propagation and termination (production of nonradicalproducts) reactions (Reaction 8.1 to Reaction 8.4). Figure 8.3represents a general
© 2004 by CRC Press LLC
 
FIGURE 8.1
Diseases and damages caused by reactive oxygen species.
FIGURE 8.2
Consequences of reactive oxygen species in diseases and preventive role of phenolics.
Reactive Oxygen SpeciesArthritisAtherosclerosisCancerDiabetesFrostbiteInfection(malaria, AIDS)InflammationIshemia(brain, heart)ParkinsonismRadioactivedamageShockAging3 O
2
, H
2
O, LHO
2
, H
2
O
2
,
1
O
2
, LOOH, LO , L , LOO(Reactive oxygen species)Lipid Protein DNATissue DamageFormationEffectInactivation
3
O
2
, L-L,LOH, H
2
OPhenolicsPhenolicsPhenolics
© 2004 by CRC Press LLC
 
scheme for autoxidation of polyunsaturated lipids and their consequence in qualitydeterioration of food:Initiation RH
R
+ H
(8.1)Propagation R
+ O
2
 
ROO
(8.2)ROO
+ RH
R
+ ROOH(8.3)Termination(8.4)
FIGURE 8.3
General scheme for autoxidation of lipids containing polyunsaturated fatty acids(RH) and their consequences.
RHRRHRROOH(Hydroperoxides)InitiationH abstractionInitiators (uv light,
1
O
2
, metal catalysts, heat, etc.)(lipid free radicals)TerminationOxidation of pigments,flavors and vitaminsBreakdown productssuch as ketones, aldehydes,alcohols, hydrocarbons, acids,epoxides(including rancid off-flavorcompounds)Polymerization products(dark color, possibly toxic)Insolubilization of proteins(changes of functionalityand texture)PropagationROO
RRRROOROOROO
+++
nonradical products
© 2004 by CRC Press LLC

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