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Chemical Kinetic3

Chemical Kinetic3

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Published by Mousumi Patnaik

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Published by: Mousumi Patnaik on Oct 16, 2013
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Chemical kinetics
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopediaJump to:navigation,searchThis article includes alist of references,related reading orexternal links,but
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(September 2012)
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Reaction ratetends to increase withconcentration
a phenomenon explained bycollision theory.
General Concepts
Chemical kinetics
Chemical kinetics
, also known as
reaction kinetics
, is the study of ratesof chemical processes. Chemical kineticsincludes investigations of how different experimental conditions can influence the speed of a chemical reaction andyield information about thereaction's mechanismandtransition states,as well as the construction of mathematical models that can describe the characteristics of a chemical reaction. In 1864,Peter WaageandCato Guldberg  pioneered the development of chemical kinetics by formulating thelaw of mass action,which states that the speed of achemical reaction is proportional to the quantity of the reacting substances.Chemical kinetics deals with the experimental determination of reaction ratesfrom whichrate lawsandrate constants are derived. Relatively simplerate lawsexist for zero-order reactions(for which reaction rates are independent of  concentration),first-order reactions,andsecond-order reactions,and can be derived for others. In consecutive reactions, therate-determining stepoften determines the kinetics. In consecutive first-order reactions, asteady state approximation can simplify therate law.Theactivation energyfor a reaction is experimentally determined through theArrhenius equationand theEyring equation.The main factors that influence thereaction rateinclude: thephysical stateof the reactants, theconcentrationsof the reactants, thetemperatureat which the reaction occurs, and whether or  not anycatalystsare present in the reaction.
Factors affecting reaction rate[edit ] 
Nature of the reactants[edit ] 
Depending upon what substances are reacting, the reaction rate varies. Acid/base reactions, the formation of salts,andion exchangeare fast reactions. When covalent bond formation takes place between the molecules and when largemolecules are formed, the reactions tend to be very slow. Nature and strength of bonds in reactant molecules greatlyinfluence the rate of its transformation into products.
Physical state[edit ] 
Thephysical state(solid,liquid,or gas)of a reactant is also an important factor of the rate of change. When reactants are in the samephase,as inaqueoussolution,thermal motion brings them into contact. However, when they are in different phases, the reaction is limited to the interface between the reactants. Reaction can occur only at their area of contact; in the case of a liquid and a gas, at the surface of the liquid. Vigorous shaking and stirring may be needed to bring the reaction to completion. This means that the more finely divided a solid or liquid reactant the greater itssurface area per unitvolumeand the more contact it makes with the other reactant, thus the faster the reaction. To make an analogy, for example, when one starts a fire, one uses wood chips and small branches
one does not startwith large logs right away. In organic chemistry,on water reactionsare the exception to the rule that homogeneousreactions take place faster than heterogeneous reactions.
Concentration[edit ] 
The reactions are due to collisions of reactant species. The frequency with which the molecules or ions collidedepends upon their concentrations.The more crowded the molecules are, the more likely they are to collide and reactwith one another. Thus, an increase in the concentrations of the reactants will result in the corresponding increase inthe reaction rate, while a decrease in the concentrations will have a reverse effect. For example,combustionthatoccurs in air (21% oxygen) will occur more rapidly in pure oxygen.
Temperature[edit ] 
Temperatureusually has a major effect on the rate of a chemical reaction. Molecules at a higher temperature havemorethermal energy.Although collision frequency is greater at higher temperatures, this alone contributes only a verysmall proportion to the increase in rate of reaction. Much more important is the fact that the proportion of reactantmolecules with sufficient energy to react (energy greater thanactivation energy: 
) is significantly higher and isexplained in detail by theMaxwell
Boltzmann distributionof molecular energies.

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