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Community Development Approach in Aceh Reconstruction, Reflecting on Lessons Learned for Yogyakarta

Community Development Approach in Aceh Reconstruction, Reflecting on Lessons Learned for Yogyakarta

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Published by Muamar Vebry
The tsunami and earthquake disaster that struck Aceh on 26 December 2004 resulted in an influx of over 350 aid organizations – only some of which had experience in the relief and reconstruction business. Three years after the disaster, the housing reconstruction remains less than half finished with only 45,000 houses completed from 120,000 committed.

Where are the blockages in the housing delivery system? Is it the government or the housing provider? The answer is both. Many NGO’s active in Aceh were originally humanitarian organizations without any pertinent experience in housing reconstruction. Lured by huge donations, hundreds of NGOs jumped into the reconstruction process without any supporting background, knowledge and experience in post-disaster housing reconstruction and rehabilitation. Now after three years, these compounded disasters are becoming glaringly obvious.

Previously, organizations that work in disaster relief and post conflict reconstruction focused on non-housing sectors. Housing is always classified as internal government business, whereas donors and NGOs are more interested in reconstructing schools, clinics, micro-infrastructure, or other structures classified as non-private entitlement, since its easier to identify, justify and does not require a lengthy and potentially conflict-laden process of beneficiary selection, verification and validation.

In Aceh the only organizations specialized in rebuilding houses are UN-HABITAT, CHF, and Habitat for Humanity. The rest were NGOs involved in watsan, child welfare and protection, and livelihoods regeneration (e.g., Save The Children, OXFAM), who dared to take the plunge into housing – but without any clear objectives and previous experience. Others, like the International Federation of the Red Cross , with all its experience in emergency response has not shown any significant progress on their housing project.

The challenge for these well-funded organizations is how to transfer knowledge between international staff and locally hired professionals, which obviously did not take place easily. This is an important lesson for many international organizations with diverse experiences in different fields and different parts of the world. Apparently, money alone cannot buy good teams.

When a massive scale disaster like that in Aceh happens, lack of expertise in planning, building, designing, and project management becomes obvious. As a result, donors and NGOs simplify the problems by applying a technocratic approach, drawing on hard-core engineers, who mainly emphasize the anti-seismic, construction qualities with no adequate understanding of the socio-cultural aspect. Simplifying the process as a construction output leads to major shortfalls in the activities.

This lack of knowledge in post-disaster planning and project management needs to be addressed, given so many disasters happen in Indonesia. This paper will explore 3 housing projects in Aceh and observe 1) how each were implemented, 2) identify the bottlenecks, and 3) the shortfalls and prominent variables that determined project success.

We will show that there is quite significant evidence to prove how a participatory approach to project management style is most successful. We will then outline an alternative approach to project management in post-disaster areas.
The tsunami and earthquake disaster that struck Aceh on 26 December 2004 resulted in an influx of over 350 aid organizations – only some of which had experience in the relief and reconstruction business. Three years after the disaster, the housing reconstruction remains less than half finished with only 45,000 houses completed from 120,000 committed.

Where are the blockages in the housing delivery system? Is it the government or the housing provider? The answer is both. Many NGO’s active in Aceh were originally humanitarian organizations without any pertinent experience in housing reconstruction. Lured by huge donations, hundreds of NGOs jumped into the reconstruction process without any supporting background, knowledge and experience in post-disaster housing reconstruction and rehabilitation. Now after three years, these compounded disasters are becoming glaringly obvious.

Previously, organizations that work in disaster relief and post conflict reconstruction focused on non-housing sectors. Housing is always classified as internal government business, whereas donors and NGOs are more interested in reconstructing schools, clinics, micro-infrastructure, or other structures classified as non-private entitlement, since its easier to identify, justify and does not require a lengthy and potentially conflict-laden process of beneficiary selection, verification and validation.

In Aceh the only organizations specialized in rebuilding houses are UN-HABITAT, CHF, and Habitat for Humanity. The rest were NGOs involved in watsan, child welfare and protection, and livelihoods regeneration (e.g., Save The Children, OXFAM), who dared to take the plunge into housing – but without any clear objectives and previous experience. Others, like the International Federation of the Red Cross , with all its experience in emergency response has not shown any significant progress on their housing project.

The challenge for these well-funded organizations is how to transfer knowledge between international staff and locally hired professionals, which obviously did not take place easily. This is an important lesson for many international organizations with diverse experiences in different fields and different parts of the world. Apparently, money alone cannot buy good teams.

When a massive scale disaster like that in Aceh happens, lack of expertise in planning, building, designing, and project management becomes obvious. As a result, donors and NGOs simplify the problems by applying a technocratic approach, drawing on hard-core engineers, who mainly emphasize the anti-seismic, construction qualities with no adequate understanding of the socio-cultural aspect. Simplifying the process as a construction output leads to major shortfalls in the activities.

This lack of knowledge in post-disaster planning and project management needs to be addressed, given so many disasters happen in Indonesia. This paper will explore 3 housing projects in Aceh and observe 1) how each were implemented, 2) identify the bottlenecks, and 3) the shortfalls and prominent variables that determined project success.

We will show that there is quite significant evidence to prove how a participatory approach to project management style is most successful. We will then outline an alternative approach to project management in post-disaster areas.

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Published by: Muamar Vebry on Jul 25, 2009
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

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05/25/2012

 
Kellr`gtw Dbqbce~lb`t O~~veokj g` Okbj Vbke`{tvrktge`# Vbacbktg`h e`Cb{{e`{ Cbov`bd aev Wehwoiovto
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# xgtj occ gt{ bz~bvgb`kb g` blbvhb`kw vb{~e`{b jo{ `et {jex` o`w{gh`gagko`t ~vehvb{{ e` tjbgv jer{g`h ~vembkt. Tjb vb{rct jo{ fbb` fgh fcekiohb{ g`jer{g`h dbcgbvw aev tjb dg{o{tbv {rvgev{. Tjb{b kel~cgkotge`{ ovb kel~er`dbd fwavord g`dgkotge`{ o{ xbcc o{ qrocgtw o{{rvo`kb g` tjb jer{g`h ~vembkt{.Tjb kjoccb`hb aev tjb{b xbcc,ar`dbd evho`g}otge`{ g{ jex te tvo`{abv i`excbdhb fbtxbb` g`tbv`otge`oc {toaa o`d cekoccw jgvbd ~veab{{ge`oc{# xjgkj efger{cw dgd `ettoib ~cokb bo{gcw. Tjg{ g{ o` gl~evto`t cb{{e` aev lo`w g`tbv`otge`oc evho`g}otge`{xgtj dgbv{b bz~bvgb`kb{ g` dgaabvb`t agbcd{ o`d dgaabvb`t ~ovt{ ea tjb xevcd.O~~ovb`tcw# le`bw oce`b ko``et frw heed tbol{.
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Tjb ~o~bv xo{ ~vb{b`tbv g` G`tbv`otge`oc [blg`ov e` ^e{t,Dg{o{tbv Vbke`{tvrktge`= O{{g{to`kb teCekoc Hebv`lb`t{ o`d Kellr`gtgb{# Wehwoiovto# Rvfo` o`d Vbhge`oc Dbbce~lb`t G`{tgtrtb# 6>>8.
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Bzkb~tge` aev Trvig{j Vbd Kvb{kb`t [ekgbtgb{
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Xjb` o lo{{gb {kocb dg{o{tbv cgib tjot g` Okbj jo~~b`{# coki ea bz~bvtg{b g` ~co``g`h# frgcdg`h# db{gh`g`h# o`d ~vembkt lo`ohblb`t fbkelb{ efger{. O{ o vb{rct#de`ev{ o`d @HE{ {gl~cgaw tjb ~vefcbl{ fw o~~cwg`h o tbkj`ekvotgk o~~veokj#dvoxg`h e` jovd,kevb b`hg`bbv{# xje log`cw bl~jo{g}b tjb o`tg,{bg{lgk# ke`{tvrktge`qrocgtgb{ xgtj `e odbqrotb r`dbv{to`dg`h ea tjb {ekge,krctrvoc o{~bkt. [gl~cgawg`h tjb ~vekb{{ o{ o ke`{tvrktge` ert~rt cbod{ te lomev {jevtaocc{ g` tjb oktggtgb{.Tjg{ coki ea i`excbdhb g` ~e{t,dg{o{tbv ~co``g`h o`d ~vembkt lo`ohblb`t `bbd{ te fboddvb{{bd# hgb` {e lo`w dg{o{tbv{ jo~~b` g` G`de`b{go. Tjg{ ~o~bv xgcc bz~cevb ;jer{g`h ~vembkt{ g` Okbj o`d ef{bvb ?' jex bokj xbvb gl~cblb`tbd# 6' gdb`tgaw tjb fettcb`bki{# o`d ;' tjb {jevtaocc{ o`d ~velg`b`t ovgofcb{ tjot dbtbvlg`bd ~vembkt{rkkb{{.Xb xgcc {jex tjot tjbvb g{ qrgtb {gh`gagko`t bgdb`kb te ~veb jex o ~ovtgkg~otevwo~~veokj te ~vembkt lo`ohblb`t {twcb g{ le{t {rkkb{{arc. Xb xgcc tjb` ertcg`b o`octbv`otgb o~~veokj te ~vembkt lo`ohblb`t g` ~e{t,dg{o{tbv ovbo{.
Kellr`gtw Fo{bd Vbke`{tvrktge`= lwtj ev o~~cgkofcb {ecrtge`5
G` Okbj# tjb lbo`g`h ea kellr`gtw ~ovtgkg~otge` dex`hvodbd vo~gdcw# g` b{{b`kb fbkelg`h lbo`g`hcb{{ frt b{{b`tgoccw r{bd movhe` lrkj o{ –{r{tog`ofcb dbbce~lb`t“ev –hb`dbv log`{tvbolg`h“. [rkj ~jvo{b{ ovb kel~rc{evw tbvl{ te {bkrvb ar`d{. Wbttjbw ovb vovbcw okkel~o`gbd fw odbqrotb r`dbv{to`dg`h. Levbebv# lo`w @HE{ g`Okbj kcogl te r{b ~ovtgkg~otevw o~~veokjb{# frt e`cw ~ovtgkg~otge` g` gt{ cexb{t aevl*{bb tofcb ?'.
Tofcb ?= cbqbc ea ~ovtgkg~otge` o`d bl~exbvlb`t
Tjb ke`kb~t –~ovtgkg~otevw“ jo{ dvox` dbfotb ke`kbv`g`h xjot g{ ~ovtgkg~otevw o`dxjot g{ `et# b{~bkgoccw {rvver`dg`h g{{rb{ ea dbag`g`h xjot oktgb g`ecblb`t# `bbv lg`d bl~exbvlb`t# lbo`{ g` ~vembkt db{gh`# lotbvgocg}otge` o`d {r~bvg{ge`.6
 
G` Okbj {~bkgagkoccw# –~ovtgkg~otge`“ xo{ bb` levb cgibcw te aogc aev o `rlfbv ea aoktev{. Tjb le{t ~velg`b`t ea tjb{b xo{ tjb ke`acgkt# tjb dolohbd {ekgoc aofvgk# odw{ar`ktge`oc hebv`lb`toc o`d bdrkotge`oc g`avo{tvrktrvb# tjb coki ea tvr{t# o`d tjbvb{rctg`h kce{bd,lg`dbd {ekgbtw.E` tjb etjbv jo`d# tjb xboi`b{{b{ ea @HE{ g` Okbj xbvb drb te tjbgv `ovvexo~~veokj te vbjofgcgtotge` o`d vbke`{tvrktge` avel tjb ~jw{gkoc o{~bkt xgtjert ceeig`hot tjb okkrlrcotbd baabkt{ ea ~e{t,tvorlo avel bgtjbv ke`acgkt ev dg{o{tbv. Tjg{ xo{kel~er`dbd xgtj o lg{r`dbv{to`dg`h ea xjw tjb ~be~cb ea Okbj aogcbd te bl~exbv tjbl{bcb{.E`cw o jo`darc ea @HE{ xbvb tvrcw ofcb te gl~cblb`t o kellr`gtw,fo{bd o~~veokj#xjbvbo{ le{t ~vebd tjbw dgd `et vboccw r`dbv{to`d tjb ke`kb~t fw ~vedrkg`hvbke`{tvrktge` ~vembkt{ xgtjert bl~exbvg`h gt{ fb`bagkgovgb{. Tjb tb`db`kw te tvbot tejer{g`h vbke`{tvrktge` o{ `etjg`h levb tjo` jer{g`h ~vembkt{.
Lbtjedecehw
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~ovtw le`gtevg`h {w{tbl vr` fw R`gbv{gtw ea [wgoj Iroco *R@[WOJ' xo{ {btr~ te vbgbx occ vbke`{tvrktge` ~vembkt{. Gt r{b{ ; ibw g`dgkotev{ te fb`kjlovi tjb{rkkb{{ ea bokj ~vembkt. Tjb g`dgkotev{ ovb ?'. Ke`{tvrktge` _rocgtw# 6'. [otg{aoktevwG`dbz# o`d ;'. Okker`tofgcgtw g`dbz.Tje{b ; g`dgkotev{ xgcc fb r{bd te o~~vog{b R@,JOFGTOT# Ko`odgo` Vbd Kve{{ o`dR^K,R^CG@I g` tjbgv Jer{g`h ^vegdbv ^bvaevlo`kb o`d {rf{bqrb`tcw tvgo`hrcotbdxgtj dgvbkt {gtb g{gt{. Tjb heoc ea tjg{ ~o~bv g{ te {jex# tjb`# jex tjb ~ovtgkg~otevwo~~veokj g{ {gh`gagko`t g` tjb vbfrgcdg`h ~vekb{{b{ o`d g{# g` aokt# o lomev dbtbvlg`g`haoktev cbodg`h te tjb {rkkb{{ ev aogcrvb ea tjb ~vembkt.
Tofcb 6= Le`gtevg`h Vb{rct{
Evho`g}otge`Okker`tofgcgtwG`dbz[otg{aoktevwG`dbzKe`{tvrktge`_rocgtw G`dbz
R^CG@I *Rvfo` ^eqbvtw Cg`iohb'Qbvw JghjQbvw JghjQbvw JghjKVK *Ko`odgo` Vbd Kve{{'CexCexJghjR@,JOFGTOT *R`gtbd @otge`Jrlo` [bttcblb`t'JghjJghjJghj
[ervkb= R@,JOFGTOT ‛ R@[WGOJ ;
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^ovtw Le`gtevg`h Vb{rct
Tjb R@[WGOJ {rvbw *{~e`{evbd fw R@,JOFGTOT' kel~vg{b{ Aekr{ Hver~Dg{kr{{ge` xgtj o kcr{tbvbd hver~ ea fb`bagkgovgb{ o`d cekoc cbodbv{# o`d tbkj`gkoco`ocw{g{ te vbgbx ke`{tvrktge` qrocgtw. Tjb Okker`tofgcgtw G`dbz o`d [otg{aoktge`G`dbz g{ fo{bd e` tjb fb`bagkgovgb{‗ e~g`ge` ea tjbgv fb`baoktev# xjbvbo{ tjbKe`{tvrktge` _rocgtw g{ lbo{rvbd tjverhj dgvbkt e`,{gtb ef{bvotge` xgtj o frgcdg`hg`{~bktev# ovkjgtbkt o`d kggc b`hg`bbv{# tjot vbabv o`d kel~cw te tjb Okbj Frgcdg`hKedb {to`dovd.
Tjb {rvbw ke`kcrdbd tjot R^CG@I jo{ dbcgbvbd tjb jghjb{t ~e{{gfcb ert~rtg` Ke`{tvrktge` _rocgtw# Fb`bagkgovgb{ [otg{aoktge` o`d Okker`tofgcgtw G`dbz;

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