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Diprotodons

Diprotodons

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Published by draculavanhelsing
Herds Overhead: Nimbadon lavarackorum
(Diprotodontidae), Heavyweight Marsupial Herbivores in the Miocene Forests of Australia
Herds Overhead: Nimbadon lavarackorum
(Diprotodontidae), Heavyweight Marsupial Herbivores in the Miocene Forests of Australia

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Published by: draculavanhelsing on Oct 17, 2013
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Herds Overhead:
Nimbadon lavarackorum 
(Diprotodontidae), Heavyweight Marsupial Herbivores inthe Miocene Forests of Australia
Karen H. Black 
1
*
, Aaron B. Camens
2
*
, Michael Archer
1
, Suzanne J. Hand
1
1
School of Biological, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of New South Wales, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia,
2
Department of Earth and EnvironmentalSciences, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, South Australia, Australia
Abstract
The marsupial family Diprotodontidae (Diprotodontia, Vombatiformes) is a group of extinct large-bodied (60–2500 kg)wombat-like herbivores that were common and geographically widespread in Cenozoic fossil deposits of Australia and NewGuinea. Typically they are regarded to be gregarious, terrestrial quadrupeds and have been likened in body form amongplacental groups to sheep, rhinoceros and hippopotami. Arguably, one of the best represented species is the zygomaturinediprotodontid
Nimbadon lavarackorum
which is known from exceptionally well-preserved cranial and postcranial materialfrom the middle Miocene cave deposit AL90, in the Riversleigh World Heritage Area, northwestern Queensland. Here wedescribe and functionally analyse the appendicular skeleton of 
Nimbadon lavarackorum
and reveal a far more uniquelifestyle for this plesiomorphic and smallest of diprotodontids. Striking similarities are evident between the skeleton of 
Nimbadon
and that of the extant arboreal koala
Phascolarctos cinereus
, including the powerfully built forelimbs, highlymobile shoulder and elbow joints, proportionately large manus and pes (both with a semi-opposable digit I) andexceedingly large, recurved and laterally compressed claws. Combined with the unique (among australidelphians)proportionately shortened hindlimbs of 
Nimbadon
, these features suggest adept climbing ability, probable suspensorybehaviour, and an arboreal lifestyle. At approximately 70 kg,
Nimbadon
is the largest herbivorous mammal to have occupiedthe forest canopies of Australia - an ecological niche that is no longer occupied in any Australian ecosystem and one thatfurther expands the already significant niche diversity displayed by marsupials during the Cenozoic.
Citation:
Black KH, Camens AB, Archer M, Hand SJ (2012) Herds Overhead:
Nimbadon lavarackorum
(Diprotodontidae), Heavyweight Marsupial Herbivores in theMiocene Forests of Australia. PLoS ONE 7(11): e48213. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0048213
Editor:
Alistair Robert Evans, Monash University, Australia
Received
June 27, 2012;
Accepted
September 26, 2012;
Published
November 21, 2012
Copyright:
ß
2012 Black et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permitsunrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Funding:
The Riversleigh Fossil Project is supported by the Australian Research Council (LP0989969, LP100200486, DP1094569), Xstrata Copper CommunityPartnership Program North Queensland, Outback at Isa, Mount Isa City Council, Queensland Museum, University of New South Wales, Environment Australia,Queensland Department of Environment and Heritage, and Phil Creaser and the CREATE fund at UNSW. The funders had no role in study design, data collectionand analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.
Competing Interests:
The authors have the following interests: this research was partly supported by funds from Xstrata Copper Community PartnershipProgram North Queensland and Outback at Isa which were administered through the Australian Research Councils Linkage Projects Scheme. There are nopatents, products in development or marketed products to declare. This does not alter the authors’ adherence to all the PLOS ONE policies on sharing data andmaterials.* E-mail: k.black@unsw.edu.au (KHB); aaron.b.camens@gmail.com (ABC)
Introduction
The diprotodontian marsupial Suborder Vombatiformes isrepresented by only four extant species: the Koala,
Phascolarctos cinereus 
, sole surviving member of the once diverse (18 specieswithin eight genera) family Phascolarctidae (Infraorder Phasco-larctomorphia); and three fossorial species of wombat (InfraorderVombatomorphia, Vombatidae). Extinct koalas, like their moderncounterpart, are interpreted to have been arboreal folivores on thebasis of their relatively conservative selenodont dental morphology[1–3], although postcranial material is not known. In contrast, theprimarily terrestrial Vombatomorphia is both taxonomically(approx. 41 genera) and ecologically diverse with six extinctfamilies identified [4–6] including: Diprotodontidae (marsupialsheep, hippos and rhinos), Palorchestidae (marsupial tapirs);Thylacoleonidae (carnivorous marsupial lions); Ilariidae (marsupi-al anthracotheres); Wynyardiidae (dog-sized quadrupedal brows-ers); and Maradidae (an enigmatic monotypic family of which littleis currently known).Of these groups, the diprotodontids are taxonomically the mostdiverse (18 genera, 30 spp) and are common components of fossilassemblages throughout Australia and New Guinea spanning thelast 25 million years. While many vombatomorphian families of large herbivores (e.g. ilariids, wynyardiids, and maradids) wereextinct by early Miocene times, diprotodontids were one of the fewto increase in diversity throughout the Cenozoic, appearing tobenefit from the opening up of Australia’s forests [3]. As such,diprotodontids are arguably the most useful mammalian group forbiocorrelating Australia’s otherwise undated Cenozoic fossilassemblages [5–9].Diprotodontids were the largest herbivores in AustralasianCenozoic palaeocommunities until their extinction in the latePleistocene and demonstrate a general trend of increasing bodysize through time [7–10] ranging from sheep- (e.g.
Ngapakaldia tedfordi 
 ) and calf-sized (e.g.
Ngapakaldia bonythoni 
,
Neohelos tirarensis 
 )forms during the late Oligocene and culminating in the 2.5 tonnePleistocene giant
Diprotodon optatum
, the biggest marsupial known.The group is characterised by simple bilophodont molars, similar
PLOS ONE | www.plosone.org 1 November 2012 | Volume 7 | Issue 11 | e48213
 
to those found in extant browsing kangaroos. While some arerepresented by complete crania and postcranial elements, therehave been few studies of the latter (e.g., [7,8,11,12]). Consequent-ly, relatively little is understood about their palaeobiology.Nevertheless, on the basis of their high relative-abundance infossil assemblages and large body size (with most species exceeding 200 kg in weight), diprotodontids are generally interpreted to havebeen gregarious terrestrial quadrupeds [3].The middle Miocene
Nimbadon lavarackorum
[13] is among thesmallest (c. 70 kg, see Text S2), most plesiomorphic [2,14] andbest represented diprotodontid species known. Exceptionally well-preserved fossils of this species (Figure 1) including more than 26complete skulls and several articulated skeletons, ranging in agefrom pouch young to mature adults, have been recovered from amiddle Miocene cave deposit, AL90 Site, in the Riversleigh WorldHeritage Area of northwestern Queensland, Australia [15,16].When first described primarily on the basis of the dentition, itwas assumed that
N. lavarackorum
, like other diprotodontids, was aterrestrial quadruped although a recent analysis [17] of digitalproportions and certain elements of the carpus of 
N. lavarackorum
did suggest possible climbing abilities. Now, on the basis of analysisof much of the rest of the skeleton and in particular the limbs, wesuggest that this species had an arboreal lifestyle (Figure 2). Thismakes it the largest known herbivorous mammal to occupy theforest canopies of Australia and one of the largest arborealmammals in the world.
Materials and Methods
 Nimbadon
specimens are registered (QM F) in the palaeonto-logical collections of the Queensland Museum. Skeletal compar-isons were made with the arboreal Koala ( 
Phascolarctos cinereus 
 ), thefossorial Common Wombat
Vombatus ursinu
 ), the scansorialBrushtail Possum ( 
Trichosurus vulpecula 
 ) and several extinct marsu-pials including the diprotodontids
Ngapakaldia tedfordi 
,
Ng. bonythoni 
,
 Neohelos tirarensis 
,
Neohelos stirtoni 
,
Zygomaturus trilobus, Euowenia grata 
,and
Diprotodon optatum
, and the vombatomorphian Marsupial Lion
Thylacoleo carnifex 
 ). Comparisons were also made with the extantMalayan Sun Bear
Ursus malayanus 
, a potential modern functionalanalogue. Specimens examined in this study are listed in Text S1along with osteological descriptions, comparisons and functionalanatomy. Reference to comparative taxa in the text is made using their generic name.
Ngapakaldia 
refers to
Ngapakaldia tedfordi 
, unlessotherwise stated. A summary of key aspects of structure andfunction of the appendicular skeleton is presented below.
Results
Functional morphology of the forelimb
Humerus 
(Figure 3): The humerus of 
Nimbadon
is strikingly similarto that of 
Phascolarctos 
in overall proportions and the orientation of the diaphysis. The deltopectoral crest (Figure 3A–D) is moreprominent and distally extensive than in
Phascolarctos 
and has alarger area for insertion of M. pectoralis suggesting greatermechanical advantage of this muscle in
Nimbadon
. The insertionareas of the latissimus dorsi and teres major muscles on the medialface of the diaphysis (Figure 3C–D) are more highly developed in
 Nimbadon
than in any other taxon studied. The combined action of these muscles suggests the capacity for powerful adduction,internal rotation and retraction of the forelimb. A large triangularinsertion area extending from the distal border of the greatertuberosity to the lateral superior border of the deltopectoral crest,indicates M. deltoideus pars acromialis, a main abductor andexternal rotator of the humerus, was similarly developed to thatfound in both
Phascolarctos 
and
Trichosurus 
.The humeral head is broad and round and projects furtherproximally than the well developed humeral tuberosities(Figure 3F) indicating a highly mobile gleno-humeral joint.Significant stability of this joint is provided by well developedrotator cuff musculature indicated by: deep sulci on the proximaland lateral surfaces of the greater tuberosity for insertion of M.supraspinatus and M. infraspinatus, respectively; and a welldeveloped muscle scar on the medial face of the lesser tuberosityfor insertion of M. subscapularis (Figure 3G), which is betterdeveloped and more distinct in
Nimbadon
than in any of the othertaxa examined.
Figure 1. Composite
Nimbadon lavarackorum 
skeleton from AL90, Riversleigh.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0048213.g001Heavyweight Arboreal Marsupial HerbivoresPLOS ONE | www.plosone.org 2 November 2012 | Volume 7 | Issue 11 | e48213
 
The distal humerus is broad with a large, prominent and heavilypitted medial epicondyle for the origin of M. pronator teres andthe carpal and digital flexors (M. flexores digitorum profundus andsuperficialis, and carpi radialis). It is similar in proportion to
 Ngapakaldia 
, slightly more laterally extensive than in
Phascolarctos 
yetnot as well developed as in
Vombatus 
. Extending proximally andlaterally from the medial epicondyle is a broad, thick entepicon-dylar bridge which traverses a large supracondylar foramen(Figure 3B, D). This foramen functions as a retinaculum for themedian nerve and brachial artery to prevent them from slumping across the angle of the elbow during flexion. In mammals, it isassociated with the ability to abduct and supinate the forearm[18]. Its large size in
Nimbadon
may indicate the forelimbs wereusually held in a flexed position.The ectepicondylar ridge is more laterally extensive in
Nimbadon
than in either
Phascolarctos 
,
Vombatus 
or
Trichosurus 
, and is indicativeof a well developed M. brachioradialis muscle (a major flexor of the forearm onto the humerus) as well as providing the site of origin for the M. extensor carpi radialis. As in
Phascolarctos 
theepicondylar ridge of 
Nimbadon
terminates in a well-developedhook-like process (Figure 3A–B). The lateral epicondyle (the originof the carpal and digital extensors) is less prominent than that of 
Vombatus 
yet similarly developed to that of 
Phascolarctos 
and
Trichosurus 
.
Elbow joint.
The distal humerus and proximal radial andulnar articulations indicate a highly mobile joint capable of significant extension of the forelimb, and supination and pronationof the antebrachium. As in
Phascolarctos 
, the olecranon process isshort, the anconeal process is small, and the trochlea notch isshallow and open (Figure 4E–H); features that would allow greatextension of the forearm, without restricting movement to theparasagittal plane. The olecranon process is robust with deep scarson its proximal, medial and lateral surfaces for the insertion of thetriceps muscles. An extended area of insertion for M. tricepsbrachii caput mediale is evidenced by a strong ridge extending from the anconeal process to the medial ulna (Figure 4F). Theradial head is circular (contra the ovate condition in other taxastudied) with a gently concave capitular depression (Figure 4D)that would allow significant rotation about the ball-like capitulumof the distal humerus (Figure 3B). The radial notch of the ulna(Figure 4F) is flattened and laterally expanded and the corre-sponding articular facet on the radius is extensive (Figure 4C),encircling 270
u
of the radial head, which suggests significant rotaryability of the manus.
Radius and Ulna (Figure 4).
The
Nimbadon
ulna closelyresembles that of 
Phascolarctos 
in being slender, relatively elongate,and mediolaterally flattened. The radius is moderately elongate,proportionately longer than
Vombatus 
yet shorter relative to
Phascolarctos 
and
Trichosurus 
. Both the radius and ulna areproportionately and absolutely more elongate than that of 
 Ngapakaldia tedfordi 
, a similar sized animal based on skull length.The forearm flexors (M. biceps brachii and M. brachialis) werewell developed as evidenced by the broad radial tuberosity of theproximal radius (Figure 4C) and extensive insertion areas at thebase of the ulnar trochlea notch (Figure 4F). The medial face of theulna is deeply concave proximally as it is in
Vombatus 
(contra
Phascolarctos 
 ) suggesting a well developed M. flexor digitorumprofundus. A broad area for the origin of M. flexor carpi ulnarismedially and extensors indicis and pollicis longus laterally,occupies the posterior surface of the ulna. Extensive flattenedfacets on the distal medial ulna and posterior radius for thepronator quadratus indicate a strong connection between theradius and ulna and the capacity for pronation of the manus andantebrachium.
 Wrist joint.
A considerable range of movement that allowssignificant inversion/eversion and supination/pronation of themanus is evidenced by: a spherical ulnar styloid process (Figure 4I)and a shallowly concave circular styloid fossa of the cuneiform(Figure 5F); broadly rounded and smoothly convex radial facets of the scaphoid and unciform (Figure 5B, F); and the relatively looseconcavo-convex articulation between the cuneiform and unciform.The pisiform is large and elongate, with minimal ulnar contact. Itprojects posterolaterally from the carpus (Figure 5B), suggesting good mechanical advantage for the flexor carpi ulnaris andenhanced rotary ability of the wrist [19]. It is more similar to
Phascolarctos 
and
Trichosurus 
than the robust pisiforms of 
Ngapakaldia 
and
Vombatus 
, and like
Phascolarctos 
and
Trichosurus 
, has minimalarticulation with the ulna. Munson [11] suggested the relativelyelongate and narrow pisiforms of 
Phascolarctos 
and
Trichosurus 
(width
,
0.5 length) may indicate a lifestyle or body size thatrequires less weight to be placed on their front feet as opposed tothe robust pisiforms of large bodied terrestrial vombatoids (width
.
0.5 length). Alternatively, it may indicate a more digitigradestance.
Manus (Figure 5).
The unciform is the largest carpal withcomplex concavo-convex facets for metacarpal (Mc) IV and McVindicating digits IV–V were capable of a large degree of abductionand adduction. The McIV facet is larger than the McV facet (aunique feature among the diprotodontids studied) and reminiscentof 
Phascolarctos 
and
Trichosurus 
. The McV facet is narrow, deeply
Figure 2. Reconstruction of 
Nimbadon lavarackorum 
mother and juvenile (Peter Schouten).
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0048213.g002Heavyweight Arboreal Marsupial HerbivoresPLOS ONE | www.plosone.org 3 November 2012 | Volume 7 | Issue 11 | e48213

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