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Cockcroft

Cockcroft

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Published by manoj kumar rout

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Published by: manoj kumar rout on Jul 26, 2009
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Cockcroft-Walton generator
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to:navigation, search This Cockcroft-Walton voltage multiplierwas part of one of the early particle accelerators responsible for development of the atomic bomb. Built in1937 by Philipsof Eindhovenit is now in theNational Science MuseuminLondon,England. The Cockcroft-Walton (CW) generator, or multiplier, was named after the two menwho in1932used this circuit design to power theirparticle accelerator, performing the first artificial nuclear disintegration in history.John Douglas CockcroftandErnest Thomas Sinton Walton used thisvoltage multipliercascade for most of their research, which in 1951won them the Nobel Prize in Physicsfor "Transmutation of  atomic nuclei by artificially accelerated atomic particles". Less well known is thefact that the circuit was discovered much earlier, in1919, byHeinrich Greinacher, a Swissphysicist. For this reason, this doubler cascade is sometimes also referred to asthe Greinacher multiplier.
Contents
 
[edit] Design
A simple two-stage CW multiplierA full-wave CW multiplierThe CW is basically avoltage multiplierthat converts AC or pulsing DC electricalpower from a low voltagelevel to a higher DC voltage level. It is made up of a voltage multiplier ladder network of capacitorsand diodes to generate high voltages. Unliketransformers,this method eliminates the requirement for the heavy core and the bulk of insulation/potting required. Using onlycapacitorsanddiodes, thesevoltage multiplierscan step up relatively low voltages to extremely high values,while at the same time being far lighter and cheaper thantransformers. The biggestadvantage of such circuits is that thevoltageacross each stage of the cascade isequal to only twice the peak input voltage, so it has the advantage of requiringrelatively low cost components and being easy to insulate. One can also tap theoutput from any stage, like a multitapped transformer.
[edit] Operational characteristics
In practice, the CW has a number of drawbacks. As the number of stages isincreased, the voltages of the higher stages begin to 'sag', primarily due to the ACimpedance of the capacitors in the lower stages. And, when supplying an outputcurrent, the voltage ripple rapidly increases as the number of stages is increased.For these reasons, CW multipliers with large number of stages are used only whererelatively low output current is required. These effects can be partially compensatedby increasing the capacitance in the lower stages, by increasing the frequency of theinput power and by using an AC power source with a square or triangular shapedwaveform. By driving the CW from a high frequency source, such as aninverter, ora combination of an inverter and HV transformer, the overall physical size andweight of the CW power supply can be substantially reduced.CW multipliers are typically used to develop higher voltages for relatively lowcurrent applications such as bias voltages ranging from tens or hundreds of volts tomillions of volts forhigh-energy physicsexperiments orlightning safety testing.
[edit] Usage
 
CW multipliers are also found, with a higher number of stages, inlasersystems,high-voltage power supplies, X-raysystems, LCDbacklighting, traveling wave tube  amplifiers,ion pumps, electrostaticsystems,air ionisers, particle accelerators,copy  machines, scientific instrumentation,oscilloscopes, TV sets,CRT sets, bug zappers and many other applications that use high-voltage DC.
Basic multiplier circuitsf.w.v voltage doubler
 
Greinacher voltagedoubler circuit. (a)simpleversion fogrounded input voltage, (b)doubleversion fosymmetric input voltage.Diodes must bedimensioned for 2x inpu peak voltageUp, capsonly for 1Up.
The Greinacher doubler circuit (a) transforms a grounded AC voltage (peak voltageUp) into symmetrical DC voltages of 1x Up each, thus producing 2x Up betweenoutputs. If the input voltage is already symmetrical (e.g. as in an Obit), theGreinacher circuit may be doubled according to (b). This does not change the outputvoltages but increases the possible output current by a factor of two.
Villard voltage doubler

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