The term computer graphics includes almost everything on computers that is nottext or sound. Today almost every computer can do some graphics, and peoplehave even come to expect to control their computer through icons and picturesrather than just by typing.
a sub-field of computer sciencewhich studies methods for digitallysynthesizing and manipulating visual content.Today much of our life is affected by computers, and by computer graphics.Whether you see them on television, in newspapers, in weather reports or while atthe doctor's surgery, computer images are all around you. A well-chosen graph is
able to transform a complex table of numbers into meaningful results. Suchgraphs are used to illustrate papers, reports, and theses, as well as providing thebasis for presentation material in the form of slides and overhead transparencies.A range of tools and facilities are available to enable users to visualise their data,and computer graphics are used in many disciplines.
In 1960William Fetter, a graphic designer forBoeing Aircraft Co., was creditedwith coining the phrase "Computer Graphics" to describe what he was doing atBoeing at the time. Fetter has said that the terms were actually given to him byVerne Hudson of the Wichita Division of Boeing. In a 1978 interview Fetter stated,that there had been a long-standing need in certain computer graphicsapplications for human figure simulations, that as descriptions of the human bodyare both accurate and at the same time adaptable to different user environment.His early work at Boeing was focused on the development of such ergonomicdescriptions. One of the most memorable and iconic images of the early history of computer graphics was such a human figure, often referred to as the "BoeingMan", but referred to by Fetter as the "First Man".
SAGESector Control Room.The field of computer graphics developed with the emergence of computergraphics technology. Projects in this field like theWhirlwindandSAGE Projectshelped to open the door to the computer graphics discipline by providing theCRTas a viable display and interaction interface, and introduced the light pen as animportant input device. Continuing the development of the digital computer, theTX-2computer in 1959 at MIT's Lincoln Laboratory was key in the evolution of interactive computer graphics. Their display, a lightpen, and a bank of switcheswere the interface on which the first interactive computer graphics system wasbased. The TX-2, integrated a number of man-machine interfaces that were justwaiting for the right person to show up to use them in order to make a computerthat was "on-line". With a simple cathode ray tube and light pen on the TX-2'sconsole and thought one should be able to draw on the computer, the Sketchpad,and with it, interactive computer graphics were born. In the Lincoln Labs on theirTX-2 computerIvan Sutherland's PhD work made him to be the "grandfather" of interactive computer graphics and graphical user interfaces.
The activities at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology would help to shapethe early computer and computer graphics industries. It wasn't long before majorcorporations started taking an interest in computer graphics.TRW,Lockheed-Georgia,General ElectricandSperry Randare among the many companies thatwere getting started in computer graphics by the mid 1960's.IBMwas quick torespond to this interest by releasing the IBM 2250 graphics terminal, the firstcommercially available graphics computer.
The organizations, conferences, graphics standards, and publications in the fieldof computer graphics emerged since end 1960s. In 1969 theACMinitiated a ASpecial Interest Group in Graphics (SIGGRAPH
) which interest ran fromsimulation and modeling, to text editing and composition, to computer generatedart, cartography and mapping, computer aided design and, computer graphicssoftware and hardware. In 1973 the first annual SIGGRAPH conference was held,which has become one of the compelling aspects of the organization. Over theyears, Panels and Courses were added, an Art Show became a mainstay, andvenues for emerging technologies were provided. Several related conferences haveoccasionally co-located with SIGGRAPH, and an Education track became part of the overall conference offerings.
During the late 1970s,personal computersbecame more powerful, capable of drawing both basic and complex shapes and designs. In the 1980s, artists andgraphic designers began to see thepersonal computer, particularly theCommodore AmigaandMacintosh, as a serious design tool, one that could savetime and draw more accurately than other methods.3D computer graphicsbecame possible in the late 1980s with the powerfulSGIcomputers, which werelater used to create some of the first fullycomputer-generatedshort filmsatPixar.TheMacintoshremains one of the most popular tools for computer graphics ingraphic design studios and businesses.Modern computer systems, dating from the 1980s and onwards, often use agraphical user interface(GUI) to present data and information with symbols,icons and pictures, rather than text. Graphics are one of the five key elements of multimediatechnology.3D graphicsbecame more popular in the 1990s ingaming,multimediaandanimation.In 1996,Quake, one of the first fully 3Dgames, was released. In 1995,Toy Story,the first full-length computer-generated animation film, was released incinemas worldwide. Since then, computer graphics have become more accurateand detailed, due to more advanced computers and better 3D modelling softwareapplications, such asCinema 4D.