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Apuntes Convergence+

Apuntes Convergence+

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Published by Pablo Cruz

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Published by: Pablo Cruz on Jul 27, 2009
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


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TELEPHONYLegacy Hybrid and IP Telephony Systems
Telephone systems have begun the migration from sending voice across dedicated circuitswitched lines using time division
multiplexing to capturing voice and using IP packetsto send the
voice across a shared data network to the receiver.
Hybrid telephony systems integrate key-systems and wide area connections to allow voicecalls to move across traditional phone systems for local calls. If the call is destined for long distance,
the voice is encapsulated and sent across the WAN link in
 packet form.
The Internet Protocol (IP) is an OSI layer three protocol. This
 protocol uses an address touniquely identify every host connect-
ed directly to the Internet. The speakers voice iscaptured and
segmented into separate blocks called packets.There are various reasons to migrate to an IP telephone system. First, the phone devicesnow have universal access. Wherever there is Internet access an IP phone may make calls toanywhere in the world.IP phones contain additional features not found on traditional phones. Cost reductions aremade when companies migrate to
a single infrastructure running both voice and data over the same wire. The number of technical experts required to operate a dual telephone/datastructure will be reduced.
Key Systems
The smallest businesses usually begin with the same sort of single line telephone installedin most homes. However, as a business grows and adds staff, it needs the flexibility of multiple lines. For a business too big for a single telephone, but much too small for a large-scale office switching system, key systems are the answer.
Key systems are fairly simple on-site telephone systems geared to organizations with fewer than 100 telephones. Like a PBX, they switch calls to and from the public network andwithin users’ premises. However, key systems are simpler than a PBX,
reducing theadministrative workload for small businesses.
Key System Components
The first multiline business telephone system was called the 1A
key telephone system. Itconsisted of a red hold button, four 
telephone line buttons, and an office intercom button.This system
 became the workhorse of small businesses, and many of these
systems arestill installed today.
A key system provides multiple telephone extensions access to a group of single telephonelines. For example, if a small office has six single lines, it can use a key system to access
any of those lines from each of its telephones. Each telephone extension would have six buttons (one for each line); this is known as a squared line configuration. To connect atelephone extension to a line, a caller simply presses one of the unlit line buttons and if aline is free the caller will hear dial tone. The concept of key systems is illustrated on theKey Telephone System Diagram
Key Telephone System
 All telephone sets in a key system were connected to a central device called a Key ServiceUnit (KSU), which connected each telephone set to a group of outside business lines.Today, new KSU-less systems offer all the functionality of KSU within each telephone set.The main point to remember about a key system is that it can sup- port only as manyincoming or outgoing telephone calls, or “call paths,” as there are lines installed. In other words, if a customer has 100 telephone extensions in an office, but only 40 linesinstalled, the maximum number of simultaneous calls, coming in or going out, is limited to40. If the 40 lines are all in use, outgoing callers must wait for a free line, while incomingcallers receive a busy signal.In many business settings, such as large retail centers or factory floors, cordless keysystems provide employees telephone service while allowing them freedom of movement.Wireless transmission is used to connect these mobile extensions to the main business lines,and to each other by means of intercom features. This type of technology is presented onthe Cordless Key System Diagram
Cordless Key System
 The use of wireless telephones inside buildings requires special base stations with antennaelocated on every floor. There are gen- erally also special outside base stations with antennaefor nearby outdoor areas between buildings on a campus. The base stations must be wiredwith twisted pair to specialized circuit packs within the telephone system cabinet.Specialized wireless telephones associated with key systems and PBXs are high profitmargin peripherals. These telephones operate at higher frequencies than home telephonesand have specialized features associated with particular key and PBX telephone systems.On-site wireless telephone systems use a cellular digital switching technology similar toPersonal Communications Service (PCS). Calls are transferred between base stations whena user walks out of the range of a particular antenna. Some mobile telephone units canfunction both inside and outside of the business campus. They sense when they are out of the range of the base system, and automatically switch calls to a cellular telephonenetwork.
Limitations of Key Systems
A key system provides a cost-effective way for a small business
to share a moderatenumber of telephone lines. However, key
systems offer fairly unsophisticated functionality

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