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UNIT-3-COMPUTER AIDED DESIGN

# UNIT-3-COMPUTER AIDED DESIGN

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02/17/2013

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UNIT-III
Solid modeling containsgeometrical information necessary to unambiguously describe a3Dobject: It is a well advanced geometric modeling technique.3.1. GEOMETRIC MODELING
The geometric modeling is the computer compatible mathematical description of the geometry of the object.
The mathematical description allows the image of the object to be displayed andmanipulated on the computer screen and also it can be stored in the memory andretrieved back and displayed on the computer screen whenever required.The geometric modeling can be classified into1. Wire frame modeling.2. Surface modeling3. Solid modeling.3.2. WIRE FRAME MODELING
Wire frame modeling is the simplest method of modeling the object.
Wire frame models canbe considered as networks of inter connected lines torepresent the edges of the physical objects being modeled.
A typical wire frame may consist of points, lines, arcs, circles, conies and curves.
There are two types of wire frame modeling– 21/2 and 3D modeling.
Projectingthe 2D plane profile along its normal or rotating the 2D plane profileabout an axes is known as 21/2 D projection. A simplest 2/2 D model is shown infig 3.1
Fig 3.1. Simple model of 2! D projection
Similarly, a simple 3D wire frame model is shown in fig 3.2(a). Without hidden line removal(b). With hidden line removal
Fig 3.2. A 3D wireframe model

Advantages:1. Wire frame models are simple and easy to create, with little computer time andmemory.2. Wire frame model form the basis for surface model.3. CPU time required to retrieve, edit or update a wire frame model is usually smallcompared with surface or solid models.
Wire frame modeling can be considered as extension of computer aided drafting.
Wire frame models provide accurate information about the location of surfacediscontinuity on the part.
It can be used as a basis for automatic generation of cutter paths to drive NCmachine tool to manufacture component.Disadvantages:1. There is always some ambiguity in visualizing the 3D model.
Fig 3.3 Interpretation of 3D wireframe model
The wire frame model shown in fig 3.3 (a) may be interpreted as a model shown in fig3.3 (b) or 3.3 (c) i.e. 3D wire frame model can be interpreted in more number of ways.2. Without hidden line removal object become clumsy and difficult to understand theobject.3. Calculation of section properties and mass properties are impossible.4. It has limited use in manufacturing and analysis.5. Presentation of circular holes and curved surfaces are poor.6. Interference checking will be difficult.3.3. SURFACE MODELING
The ambiguities of wire frame modeling are overcome with surface models.
The surface modeling takes the modeling of an object one step beyond wire framemodel by providing information on surfaces connecting the object edges. i.e., Asurface model can be built by defining the surface on the wireframe. This isanalogous to stretching a thin sheet of material over a frame work.The surfaces generated by the surface modeling are classified into(a) Flat surface- most basic feature of surface model.(b) Sculptured surfaces- based on flat face mostly used in FE analysis.(c) Sculptured surfaces based on patches.(d) Analytical surfaces (very rarely used).(e) Combination of the above types.

Simple and basic form of surface is flat surface.
The most general and complex surfacerepresentations are generally known assculptured surface.
Sculptured surface means the surface produced from combining two families of curves that intersects one another in a cross-cross manner, creating network of inter connected patches.
Fig 3.4. Scultured surface
Common entities used in a surface modeling softwares area. Plane surface.b. Ruled (lofted) surface.c. Surface of revolution.d. Tabulated surface.e. Bezier surfacef. B-spline surfaceg. coons patchh. Fillet surface.i. Offset surface.
(a) Plane surface:
This is the simplest surface. It requires 3 non-coincident points on an infinite plane.Fig 3.7 Surface of revolution
(b) Ruled (lofted) surface:
This is a linear surface. It interpolates linearly between two boundary curves as shown infig.Fig 3.6. Ruled surface

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